It is clear and obvious that many cities around the world today face serious problems for the proper functioning of their daily activities due to traffic congestion. The bottlenecks are the result of many factors that depend on the level of technological development and the economy of the country in question, which somehow influences the rest of the other factors. With respect to this study, an attempt was made to analyze the economic impact of road congestion in Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to examine the economic impacts of road congestion in Nigeria from a variety of perspectives, as well as identify supportive policies that may be necessary to reduce road congestion. The study found that road congestion greatly affected Nigerians, institutions and the government in general in different aspects / dimensions. The researcher said the current transit system in Nigeria is struggling to cope with the population and population growth of the city and to meet the basic needs of its residents. Access to affordable and quality public transport services is essential for the urban population, since its absence leads to economic, social and physical isolation, particularly in low-income communities in the suburbs of the city, with insufficient access to public transport and others. Basic urban facilities. In response to public transport challenges in Nigeria, it has been found that; An urban development strategy was designed and proposed to establish a fast bus system for the entire city. The elements of the BRT system will contribute to the objectives and performance of public transport, including shorter travel times, greater reliability, better identity and image, greater security, increasing capacity and improving accessibility. Therefore, BRT is recommended for cities in developing countries. More importantly, the urban poor could benefit greatly from the best accessibility and high quality service provided by BRT.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Transport is one of the key sectors of the economy. It plays a vital role in the daily activities of economic development. It serves as a catalyst in production, as it facilitates the movement of inputs to production points and evacuates products for storage or marketing. Its role is essential for all aspects of the social and economic life of society (NTP, 2011). Transportation, especially road transport, is a basic necessity for people after lunch and shelter.
With an efficient, safe and affordable transport system that offers the option of different modes of transport, accessibility to basic needs can be improved; many costs can be saved; productivity can be increased; and thus human and economic development can be improved. In addition, the reduction of pollution, the reduction of necessary transport spaces and the improvement of road safety lead to an improvement in the quality of life (Robin and Wytse, 2011).
Pacione et al .; (2005) argued that inefficient and inefficient transport systems significantly limit economic development, social opportunities and social interactions. Access to affordable and good quality public transport is essential for the urban population, since its absence generates economic, social and physical isolation (Department of International Development, 1999). The problem seems to affect low-income communities in suburban areas with inadequate access to public transport and other basic urban infrastructure (Hine, Olvera et al, 2003). In general, transportation is essential for development because, without physical access to resources and markets, health, education and other social services; quality of life suffers, growth stagnates and poverty reduction cannot be maintained. Motorized transport, with its corresponding negative impacts, contributes greatly to creating an imbalance between the three aspects of sustainable development: economic growth, social progress and environmental protection (Robin and Wytse, 2011).
Lagos is one of the largest industrial, commercial and public administrative centers in Nigeria; host many offices of many ministries and departments, private sectors and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Nigeria generates more than 40% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of countries and contributes 80% of domestic revenues to national governments. Therefore, it remains the center of all economic, social and political activities; locally and internationally, and as such it remains the center of all kinds of paraphernalia and is the most populous and busiest city in the country (Setebe, 1994).
The city of Lagos is characterized by a high proportion of informal development and poverty, where almost 70% of its population lives in informal settlements (World Bank, 2002). Most people cannot afford to buy a private car and around 75% of trips to the city are by public transport and on foot (Olvera et al., 2003, Nkurunziza et al., 2012).
Population growth, urbanization and family income that create a greater propensity to travel; marked increase in car ownership; and the increase in commercial and industrial activity has in turn led to an increase in the demand for car transport (Oni, 1999: UN, 2011). However, this increase does not correspond to the expansion of the physical infrastructure of the city, which is one of the essential facilities for the establishment of an adequate and efficient transport system. If roads become impractical due to lack of facilities to allow vehicles to circulate efficiently, the most notable effects are traffic jams. The consequence of these bottlenecks is the inefficient and inefficient use of material and human resources in particular.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although Lagos is an axis of Nigeria’s economy, road traffic congestion is a headache and a burning problem for public and private institutions; and the inhabitants of the city in general. Congestion in the city is associated with an increase in vehicle queues and poor accessibility to work and homes, especially in the morning and afternoon hours. Serious traffic congestion is observable between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. (the time that most workers go to their workplaces), the hours between 12:30 and 2:00 p.m. lunch breaks) and the hours between 03:00 and 08:00 p. m. Based on these facts, it can be established that the majority of workers and people in general report very late in their work stations, such as offices, markets, schools and hospitals. This means that some may report on time, although very tired and stressed, and others may not. Others face the problem of a few hours of sleep due to early awakening and late sleep, wasted time in queues, overtime work and a few hours to rest at home after work.
The loss of time of road vehicles due to traffic congestion is determined based on more or less estimated queue lengths, congestion periods and average queue speed (Hansen, 2000). It is clear that people in Nigeria spent more time in traffic queues than in other transactions. In general, transportation in Nigeria is chaotic, inefficient, unreliable and dangerous. It negatively affects society, especially the urban poor, through loss of productivity, inhibiting human development and reducing the quality of life. It is said that all these complications and problems that most employees and people in the general public encounter in varying degrees and circumstances are directly associated with the congestion of existing road traffic. However, its economic impact remains largely unknown and is probably not well documented, so to speak. Consequently, the objective of this research was to examine the economic impact of traffic congestion in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
This study is aimed at assessing the impact of road traffic on the economy of Nigeria, using Lagos state as case study.
To examine the impact of road traffic on the economy of Nigeria.
To determine the relationship between the existing road traffic congestion and the work performance.
To evaluate the loss from the road traffic congestion.
To examine the physical/mental complications caused by the traffic congestion that affect work performance.
To identify supporting policies that may need to be put in place to reduce road traffic congestion.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the impact of road traffic on the economy of Nigeria?
Specific Research Questions:
What are the impact of road traffic on the economy of Nigeria?
What is the relationship between traffic congestion and work performance?
What is the loss from the road traffic congestion?
What are the complications caused by road traffic congestion that affects work performance?
What are the supporting policies that need to be put in place to reduce the road traffic congestion?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is clear and obvious that road congestion is a resounding phenomenon, a hot topic for the inhabitants of all cadres in the city of Nigeria. This is because every person who lives, works or even visits the city is affected or affected differently by existing traffic jams, leaving aside the general impact on the job performance of city residents. This research work was to show how road congestion affected Nigeria’s residents socially and economically.
Specifically, it showed its connection to work performance and other socioeconomic aspects of daily life. The investigation provided a clear picture of the degree or estimated loss so far caused by traffic congestion. As the immediate side effects of traffic jams are late, this document has shown how it affects people in the performance of their daily tasks / programs, while investigating whether mental or physical complications related to traffic jams can occur. annoy them daily. routines Research will help us learn about the different philosophies or techniques that individuals and organizations choose to address the problem.
The document presented several strategies used and those that are being implemented to alleviate the traffic congestion problem in the city of Nigeria. Most importantly, the research provided relevant recommendations and suggestions based on the nature of the findings and linking them to the current national transport policy. In addition, the research pin has highlighted some areas that will require more research in the future, provided there is a gap between this study and other studies on the problem.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was conducted in Lagos as the city is the most bottled of all cities and Nigeria. It is also the most populous city with almost all public, private and international socio-political and economic sectors. Due to this case, it has a large number of employers and employees in the formal and informal sectors. Be private, public or international. People who belong to different environments, as indicated above, depend on public and private transport. This shows that they are directly related to traffic congestion.
As the researcher could not include all the people who live and work in Lagos, four public and private sector organizations were selected for the study to represent all official employees in the city of Lagos. The number of employees of these organizations was sufficient to serve as a model to reveal the impact of road traffic on the economy of Lagos.
The study was also carried out in several public organizations such as Cowrywise, Maiatafo, the Ministry of Transportation, the Nigerian City Hall and its municipalities and the Traffic Police – Police Force of Nigeria. This selection is explained by the fact that these areas have a direct link to the issue of transport in the city of Lagos and, in particular, road transport. As a result, the information provided by the respective authorities played an important role in the study. This was also done to avoid prejudices that could occur if the search were based only on the residents of Lagos.
Another area of study concerned drivers and public transport chiefs commonly known as Okada; taxi drivers, motorcyclists (bajaji and bodaboda), as well as business men and women from the Kariakoo market. These groups represented the body of employees in the informal sectors.
During the study, the researchers faced a series of challenges, including time. The time allotted to the study was not enough to carry out an intensive and exhaustive study because some of the information was not available quickly and easily. The fund for the personally funded study was not sufficient to cover all expenses, such as transportation, food allowances, recruitment of research assistants and stationery.
During his investigation, the researcher encountered administrative problems. Many of the respondents, particularly those who were supposed to use questionnaires, were unable to complete the questionnaire on time and others deceived them to the point of requiring the researcher to redistribute other copies. In addition, many respondents had the idea of obtaining money from the researcher, especially when they knew he was researching as a prerequisite for graduation. The letter of introduction from the university that the researcher had not convinced.
The limitations explained in 1.7 were treated as follows: the researcher initially chose to use vacations and weekends to conduct the investigation. As the option was not considered effective, the researcher decided to take an annual vacation (28 days) that effectively solved the problem of time and allowed him to collect, analyze and interpret the data collected on time.
The investigator borrowed a substantial amount of money from other sources. This allowed him to have a wide coverage of the study area, as well as to study a relatively good sample size. The time was also taken to inform respondents that there was no money and that the study was aimed at obtaining a diploma. After long explanations, respondents agreed to participate and collaborate effectively in the study.
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