UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATES OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)

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OGBOO LOUIS CHINEDU

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATES OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)

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  • Name: UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATES OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)
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ABSTRACT

In this research, it is assumed that unemployment is a factor inherent in the nation’s economic system, first because intentionally or unintentionally the policymakers do not deliberately resort to measures capable of reducing unemployment to acceptable level. This research is concerned with wages and means of denitrifying the causes and measures of curbing the problem created by unemployment. To do this, this research will specifically investigate the incidence if unemployment among graduates of institution of higher learning in Enugu State and to determine what factors are responsible for or that affect unemployment. The researcher distributed (200) two hundred questionnaires to the respondent and collected (170) one hundred and seventy. Data were collected from unemployed graduates the data extracted from the questionnaire from the validation of research hypothesis were subjected to chi-square test statistics. And at the end of the research work, some possible recommendation where made like, establishment of more industries should be provided in order to absorb our unemployed graduates and conclusion were made in order to tackle the problems of unemployment amongst the graduates of higher institution in Enugu State.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page ————————————————————————i
Title page—————————————————————————ii
Certification ———————————————————————–iii
Dedication ————————————————————————-iv
Abstract —————————————————————————–v
Tables of content —————————————————————–vi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study ————————————————1 1.2 Statement of the study ————————————————–3 1.3 Objectives/purpose of the study ————————————–5 1.4 Research questions/hypothesis —————————————-6 1.5 Significance of the study ————————————————-8 1.6 Limitation of the study —————————————————-8 1.7 Scope of the study ———————————————————9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Frame Work for the Study ——————————–11
2.2 Historical Background —————————————————–13
2.3 Current Literature ———————————————————-14
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design ————————————————————-23
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3.2 Sources of data ————————————————————–24
3.2.1 Primary sources of data —————————————————25
3.2.2 Secondary sources ———————————————————-26
3.3 The population of the study ———————————————-27
3.4 Sample design and determination of sample size ——————-28
3.5 Methods of data collection ————————————————29
3.5.1 Questionnaire design, distribution and collection of responses –30
3.5.2 Secondary methods data collection ————————————-31
3.6 Methods of data presentation and analysis —————————32
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation ————————————————————-33
4.1.2 Presentation according to key research question ———————34
4.1.3 Analysis based on research hypothesis ———————————-35
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND FINDING, RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings ———————————————————-44
5.2 Recommendations ————————————————————45
5.3 Conclusion ———————————————————————–46
Bibliography —————————————————————————–47
Appendices ——————————————————————————52

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This chapter provides a broad overview of the employment
situation in graduate s which is a major concern of government
and their social partner throughout the region. Theapproach is
rather general and highlights major issues concerning
employment problems and prospects in the region. Because of
data limitation, it does not attempt a comprehensive and
quantitative analysis of the employment situation. it brings with
an examination of the employment problems, including
background information on its origin and trends, and then looks
at the nature and underlying causes of contemporary
unemployment. Unemployment of a large portion of the labor
force is a central problem now in almost all the underdeveloped
countries.
The phenomenon of chronic unemployment has become the
major concern of successive Nigerian government. The
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phenomenon of joblessness creates much concern for the
individual Nigerians. According to the 1966 – 67 manpower
surveys in Nigeria, the proportion of the labour force in Nigeria
not working is 1 – 7 percent, which means that nearly two of
every one hundred member of the potential labor are
unemployed.
Unemployment has thus reached such an alarming situation
today that is perhaps considered the most serious of the problem
affecting Nigeria and one that is steadily worsening as the gap
between the rapid rising member pressing for work and the new
employment opportunities being created widens.
In the underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria however
employment benefits are not available to the unemployed. the
income level of the great majority of families makes the provision
of unemployment benefits virtually impossible thus those unable
to find jobs or these discharged from their previous employments
re left to fend for themselves. in under developed countries
majority of job seekers are therefore forced to create
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employment for themselves particularly in the rural agricultural
sectors where they force disguised unemployment. in the context
of this study both those who are disguised unemployment. in the
context of this study both those who are disguisedly unemployed
and those who are openly unemployed are lumped together as
the unemployed.
thus unemployment is define briefly as the negative aspect of the
economic process for an unemployed person is one who despite
his willingness and capacity to work is unable to do so for reasons
inherent in the organization of the commodity production.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PPROBLEMS
Unemployment rates are particularly high among graduate and
especially among school leaves, giving rise increasingly to the
problems of “educated unemployment”. paradoxically, graduate
unemployment seems to be correlated with levels of education
attained in some cases. This is particularly true for school leavers
in, for example, Nigeria where the proportion of the unemployed
with secondary education increased from 24 to 51 percent
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between 1974 and 1985. graduate employment rates are
probably 3 – 4 times higher than those of older workers, and in
many countries in the region open unemployment among
graduate as a group in the labour could be as 40 – 50 percent.
Moreover, graduate s and new entrants to the labour force are as
well placed as experienced workers to find employment in new
opportunities or to go into self employment. Theproblems of
graduate unemployment reflect the contraction of jobs in the
modern sector and declining rate of job creation in that sector. It
also suggests serious labour market distortions related to the
development and utilization of human resources in the context
of changing economic circumstances. further, the problem of
graduate unemployment islinked to the fact of many African
countries, as already noted, continue to record relatively high
rates of population growth, and the population structure of some
of those countries is overwhelmingly young will children of school
going age accounting for as much as half of the total population
in some cases.
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1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Unemployment has become a current and a current universal
problem in Nigeria. The impact presently has been felt by 80% of
Nigerian’s families. The efforts of our government to curb it are
inadequate or misdirected, so positive results are not yet in sight.
Unemployment has brought hardship and object poverty to many
families. The level of adult dependency has increased, so the rate
of saving in our economy is declining. The problem has also led to
increase in crime waves and rates. All these could spell doom for
the nation. It is deemed fit to embark on this study as a
contribution towards the eradication of the problems of
unemployment and its accompanying problems and hardship to
the individual and in general.
Our primary motive of carrying out this study were born of the
desire to contribute in any meaningful way the idea of how the
glowing rate of unemployment in Nigeria can be dealt with in
order to reduce its social and other consequences especially on
our leaders of tomorrow to at least a minimum.
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The roles of government to assist people see the need of solving
their numerous problems of which unemployment is an integral
part. Asgraduate s generally regarded, as catalyst of national
development are no longer assumed of job security and reliable
source of livelihood. We see this as warming signal, showing that
dangeris looming and if nothing is done to arrest the situation; it
may spell out a disaster which nobody in this country can afford
to avoid.
1.4 RESEARCH /QUESTIONS/ HYPTHESIS IN THE
(SYSTEM)
The data and information that will be used in conducting this
research study will include both primary and secondary data
which involves personal observation, book, journals, company,
documents, internet downloads and a number of others white ups
and presentations which are relevant to this study.
Personal interview will also be carried out with entrepreneurs
manage and finance personal in addition to issue questionnaires.
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The method of data analysis to a adopted and used in this
research study will used of statistical tools which are the simple
percentage alongside the chi – square tests.
This research study is not an exception to hypothesis formulation
and testing. The researcher intends to formulate and test the
research hypothesis as follows.
Research hypothesis
The stress to obtain the necessary information requiredfro this
research work has been given rise to the following hypothesis.
Ho: The current Educational system is not serving our societal
need.
Hi;The current educational system is not serving our societal
need
Ho: What means could the graduates unemployment be
eradicated.
H1: There is no means graduates unemployment be eradicated
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Ho: The government address itself to the problems of
graduateunemployment galore?
Hi;The government has not address itself to the problems of
graduate unemployment galore
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The case study or area where the problem has more impact in
view of the problems created by unemployment in Enugu state
despite government conscious efforts to create employment
opportunities in the country, the interest on this problem is to
determine through facts and figure the level of, and trend in
unemployment in the country with the view to making lasting
policy, recommendations that will ameliorate the problem of
unemployment.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitation of the study is in Enugu so anything that explains
unemployment outside this area will be irrelevant and useless.

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1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is in Enugu and it touches on the various
unemployment problems, forms of unemployment.
Unemployment has been one of the most persisted and
unmanageable problems facing all industrial countries of the
world. If not handled adequately, it will not be eliminated. The
underlying causes of the serious employment problem in Nigeria
are linked both to supply – side factors, which determines the
demand for laborthrough the influence on main economic and
labor market trends.
on the supply side, apart from population growth, salient
characteristics of the labor force such as educational and skill
level and mobility of labor can influence the level and distribution
of employment, on the demand side the capacity of Nigeria
economy to absorb labor into productive employment is
influenced mainly by the rate and pattern of economic growth as
well as by the structure and efficiency of production.
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Unemployment may actually be higher among women than men
in Nigeria. although this is lately depicted in recorded statistics
many women in the country are officially outside the labor force
i.e. house wives and are not actively seeking work, but it is likely
that because of the need to argument household income many of
these women would in fact take a job opportunities if these were
available. The participation and unemployment rates of women in
the labor force in Nigeria do not as such include the large reserve
of women whose unemployed” status is concealed and not
included in official statistics.