The Project File Details
- Name: WHAT ECOWAS HAS ACHIEVED IN THE AREA OF POLITICAL INSECURITY IN WEST AFRICA
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This work examines the roles of ECOWAS and its achievements in the area of political insecurity in the West African sub-region. It explains how various crises have affected west African development. The main focus of this project is to bring to light the problems the sub-region faces and the ways to manage it.
The research methodology adopted for this research is qualitative method; most of the information‟s are from texts, articles, journals, newspaper, etc. The research sampling technique adopted is based on facts i.e a purpose sampling technique. This work also adopts two theories in helping us to understand the causes of conflict and violence that may arise in the sub-region.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page——————————————————————— i
Table of Content————————————————————- v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study——————————————-
1.2 Statement of the Problem——————————————-
1.3 Objectives of the Study———————————————
1.4 Research Questions————————————————
1.5 Research Hypothesis———————————————–
1.6 Significance of the study——————————————–
1.7 Scope of the study————————————————
1.8 Limitations to the Study———————————————
1.9 Organization of study————————————————-
1.10 Definition of Terms—————————————————
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Clarifications——————————————–
2.2 Theoritical Framework ————————————————–
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design——————————————————–
3.2 Population of the study——————————————————-
3.3 Sample size determination——————————————–
3.4 Sampling Technique————————————————-
3.5 Method of Data collection———————————————-
3.6 Data collection sources—————————————————–
3.7 Validity of Reliability ——————————————————–
3.8 Techniques of data analysis——————————–
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis —————-
4.1.2 Analysis of achievement of ECOWAS in the area of political Insecurity in west africa–
4.1.3 Analysis of the impact of insecurity on West African development —————
4.1.4 Analysis of ECOWAS in tackling insecurity in the sub-region—
4.1.5 Analysis of the prospects of sustainable peace and security through ECOWAS in the sub-region
4.1.6 Analysis of ways of enhancing ECOWAS capability to manage political insecurity in the sub- region
4.2 Discussion of findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS-
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies——————————————-
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is a regional organisation of 15 West African countries established on 28 May 1975. Its main goal is the promotion of the economic integration among its members. Indeed, ECOWAS is one of the five regional pillars of the African Economic Community (AEC). ECOWAS has three official languages: English, French, and Portuguese. Member states are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d‟Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea, Niger, Cape Verde.(www.ecowas.com 4/12/2013).
The West African sub region is one whose heritage continues to influence the political life of the region. Indeed, without the ECOWAS, West Africa would have been a region largely divided into two sections with each part aligning with either Great Britain or France depending on the individual country‟s colonial experience. Although the battle has not been fully won the ECOWAS has been trying to erode the line of demarcation created by colonialism in west Africa (Ogbeidi, 2010).
Given the very small size of many African countries in terms of population and in term of economic output particularly within West Africa, regional integration became an attractive option after the attainment of political independence in the region. A high degree of ethnic
differentiation and ethnic politicization has contributed to an impoverished West Africa that is lacking in a reasonable level of infrastructural facilities. The implication of this situation is that left alone, many of the countries will not be effectively viable in a way to achieve the desired development (Anifowose and Enenumo 1999).
It‟s therefore because of these and other factors that the 16 West African states desired to form a regional integration body, the treaty was signed on May 28 1976. The membership extends from Cape Verde to Nigeria as it encompasses not only the West African Anglophone countries but also the Francophone west African countries too.(Anifowose and Enemuo, 1999).
The ECOWAS is made up of four institutions, namely: the Commission, the Community parliament, the Community Court of Justice and ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID). The ECOWAS Commission and the ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development more often called “the Fund” are the two main institutions designated to implement policies, pursue a number of programs and convey development projects in member-states. Impact as a concept used in this paper implies the impression or the implication of ECOWAS protocols on political and economic development of West African sub-region, which can be negative or positive ECOWAS (2000). Established in 1975 originally as a regional organization to essentially promote the economic integration of the fifteen Member States, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) has been gradually transformed, under the pressure of political events, into an organization also responsible for finding solutions to armed conflicts and other political crisis which were undermining peace and security within the community space.
The nature of West African sub region is the driving force that gave impetus for the formation of the organisation to address the 3rd world problems / issues of the region. This is because of integration along regional line.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The political insecurity among the ECOWAS countries and attendant consequences has become thematic issues which the ECOWAS either don‟t have solutions for or did not incorporate in its economic and security programmes. The attendant debate is whether ECOWAS has the ability and capacity to manage insecurity in the sub region. It is against this background, that this project tries to examine the role of ECOWAS in managing insecurity in the sub region.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to examine the ECOWAS challenges of managing insecurity in the West Africa sub-region. The specific objectives are:
a. Examine the role ofECOWAS achievement in the area of political insecurity in the sub region
b. To identify the impact of these challenges on the sub-region
c. Determine how these challenges impact on development in ECOWAS region.
d. To determine the prospects of sustainable peace and stability in the sub-region.
e. Recommend ways of enhancing ECOWAS capability for achievement of security in sub region.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What is the role of ECOWAS achievement of political security in West Africa?
2. What impact has insecurity had on West African development?
3. What has ECOWAS achieved in tackling insecurity in the sub region?
4. What are the prospects of sustainable peace and security through ECOWAS in the sub region?
5. In what way can the achievement of ECOWAS capability to maintain political security in the sub region be enhanced?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis formulation in this research work is presented below;
H0: political insecurity is not relevant to sub regional development
H1: political insecurity is relevant to sub regional development
H0: political insecurity in West Africa has not resulted to peaceful conduct with other African countries
H1: political insecurity in West Africa has resulted to peaceful conduct with other African countries
H0: political insecurity has not resulted in the underdevelopment of West Africa.
H1: political insecurity has resulted in the underdevelopment of West Africa.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this project is the identification of the causes and the possible solutions to the endemic challenge of insecurity in West Africa. This, it is believed, will serve as a basis for an enduring peace and creating the foundation for security in the sub region. The sub-region stands to benefit from the product of the research, along with the international community. Subsequently, the project will contribute to the body of knowledge on ECOWAS and insecurity in West Africa. It will serve as a reference material to researchers in the field of study.
1.7 Scope of the study
The study is restricted to the period between 2005 and 2015. This period is chosen because it was when insecurity in West Africa was in the increase.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The main limitations of this study include the inability to gain access to materials for the purpose of this study. All efforts to secure interviews with important officials of the ECOWAS proved abortive. The acquisition of data from the right source is a major challenge, because the available ones showed signs of poor documentation.
1.9 Organisation of the Study
This project is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction, and contains the background to the study, statement of problem, objective of study, research hypothesis, scope and limitation, and organization of study. The second chapter is the literature review, and is made up of the conceptual clarifications and theoretical frameworks. Chapter three is the research methodology, and includes the research design, research population, sample and sampling technique, research instruments, validity and reliability of instruments, methods of data
collection, and data analysis technique. Chapter four is the data analysis, and includes the analysis of primary data, examination of the impacts of ECOWAS national security and economic development. Chapter five encompasses the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
1.10 Definition of Terms
It is important to briefly examine some terms peculiar to the proposed project. These terms are:
ECOWAS means The Economic Community of West African States.
The concept of insecurity connotes different meanings such as: absence of safety; danger; hazard; uncertainty; lack of protection, and lack of safety. According to Beland (2005) insecurity is a state of fear or anxiety due to absence or lack of protection. Achumba et al (2013) defines insecurity from two perspectives. Firstly, insecurity is the state of being open or subject to danger or threat of danger, where danger is the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury. Secondly insecurity is the state of being exposed to risk or anxiety, where anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some misfortune. These definitions of insecurity underscore a major point that those affected by insecurity are not only uncertain or unaware of what would happen but they are also vulnerable to the threats and dangers when they occur. In the context of this paper insecurity is defined as a breach of peace and security, whether
historical, religious, ethno- regional, civil, social, economic, and political that contributes to recurring conflicts, and leads to wanton destruction of lives and property.
Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
The word dictionary defines management as the act or art of managing: the conducting or supervising of something. It also defines management as judicious use of means to accomplish an end.
According to Henri Fayol, “to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control.”
Fredmund Malik defines it as “the transformation of resources into utility.”
The thesaurus dictionary defines achievement as something accomplished, especially by superior ability, special effort, great courage, etc; a great or heroic deeds .
Cambridge English dictionary defines achievement as something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing.
The oxford dictionary defines achievement as a thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage
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