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The Project File Details
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Definition 5
1.2 Historical background in Nigeria 6
1.3 Geographical location of lafiagi town 11
1.4 Motivation 12
1.5 Justification 12
1.6 Aims and objectives of study 13
1.7 Scope of the project 13
1.8 Research methodology 15
1.9 Conclusion 15
2.0 review of literature 17
2.1 Case studies 21
3.0 Brief history of lafiagi town 26
3.1 Physical features in lafiagi 28
3.2 Site selection 29
3.3 Site location and description 30
3.4 Site analysis/inventory 31
3.5 Geographical location 32
3.6 Climatic condition 33
4.0 Design criteria 39
4.1 Brief analysis 39
4.2 Space allocation 44
4.3 Functional relationship 45
4.4 Conceptual development 46
4.5 The site 46
5.0 Aesthetic appraisal of the design 48
5.1 Construction 49
5.2 Site clearance 49
5.3 Materials 50
5.4 Services 56
5.5 General maintenance 61
5.6 Summary and conclusion 62
Prison is a place used for confinement of convicted criminals. Aside from the death penalty a sentence to prison is the harvest punishment imposed on criminals.
Prisons are designed to house people who have broken the law and to move them from free society. In mates are locked away for a set period of time and have very limited freedom during their incarceration.
Confinement in prison, also known as a correctional facility, is the punishment that courts most commonly impose for serious crimes, such as felonies for lesser crimes, courts usually Impose short-term incarceration in a jail, detention center, or similar facility.
Confining criminals for long period of time as the primary form of punishment is a relatively new concept. Throughout history, various countries have imprisoned criminal offenders, but imprisonment was usually reserved for pre detention or punishment of petty criminals with a short term of confinement.
Using long-term imprisonment as the primary punishment for convicted criminals began in the United States. In the late eighteenth century, the nonviolent quarters in Pennsylvania proposed long term confinement as an alternative to capital punishment. The Quakers stressed solitude, silence, rehabilitation, hard work, and religious faith. was originally intended not only as a punishment but an opportunity for renewal through religion.
Modern prisons often hold hundreds or thousands of inmates, and must have facilities onsite to meet most of their needs, including dietary.
TYPES OF PRISONS
THE CASE TYPES AND OFFENCES IN RESPECT TO PRISON TYPES.
CAPACITY OF SOME NIGERIAN PRISONS
1.1 PROJECT DEFINITION
Medium security prisons are for offenders with lower security concerns. These institutions limit inmate activities but also encourage inmates to participate in various programs to address their needs. Significant controls over inmate activities and privileges are in place. The most common use of prisons is as part of a criminal justice system, in which individuals officially charged with or convicted of crimes are confined to a jail or prison until they either brought to trial to determine their guilt or complete the period of incarceration they trial, outside of their use for punishing civil crimes, authoritarian regimes also frequently use prisons and jails as tools of political repression to punish political crimes, often without trial or other legal due process; this use is illegal under most forms of international law governing fair administration of justice. In times of war or conflict, prisoners of war may also be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war camps, and large groups of civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps.
The medium security prisons are the standard facilities used to house most criminals. They feature cage-style housing, armed guards, and a much more regimented daily routine than minimum security.
The origin of modern prisons service in Nigeria is 1861. That was the year when conceptually, western- type prison was established in Nigeria. The declaration of Lagos as a colony in 1861 marked the beginning of the institution of formal machinery of governance. At this stage the preoccupation of the colonial government was to preoccupation of the colonial government was to protect legitimate trade, guarantee the profit of British merchants as well as guarantee the activities of the missionaries. To this end by 1861 the acting governor of the Lagos colony and who was then a prominent British merchant in Lagos, formed a police force of about 25 constables. This was followed in 1863 by the establishment in Lagos of four courts, a police court to resolve petty disputes, a criminal court to try the more serious cases, a slave court to try cases arising from the efforts to abolish the trade in slaves and a commercial court to resolve disputes among merchants and traders. The functioning of these courts and the police in that colonial setting necessarily means that prisons was needed to complete the system. And it was not long in coming for in 1872. The Broad street prison was established with an initial inmate capacity of 300. In the Niger Delta the relationship between the local people and the British merchants had before than bee moderated by special courts of merchants backed by the British Navy especially with the appointment of John Beecroft as a consul in 1849. The need for a merchant court was underscored by the fact that most conflicts between the merchants and the local people were in the main commercial. Although there was evidence of prison in Bonny at this time, not much is known about its size and content. But these who were later to oppose British rule were usually reported as happened in the case of Jaja of Opobo and King Dappa of Bonny.
However, the progressive incursion of the British into the hinterland and the establishment of British protectorate towards the end of the 19th century necessitated the establishment of prison as the last link in the criminal justice system. Thus by 1910, there already were prisons in Degema, Calabar, Onisha, Benin, Ibadan, sapele, Jebba and Lokoja. The declaration of protectorates over the East, west and North by 1906 effectively brought the entire Nigeria area under British rule. However, that did not mark the beginning of a unified Nigeria. Prisons. Had that been so, it would have negated official colonial policy for that would have required funds which the colonial power was not prepared to expand.
Even so, the colonial prison at this stage was not designed to reform anyone. There was no systematic penal policy from which direction could be sought for penal administration. Instead prisoners were in the main used for public works and other jobs for the colonial administration. For that reason there was no need for recruitment of trained officers of the prisons. Hence, colonial prisons had no trained and developed staff of their own and instead the police also performed prisons duties. As time went on ex-servicemen were recruited to do the job.
They were also very poorly run and the local prison conditions varied from one place to another in their disorganization, callousness and exploitation. But so long as they served the colonial interest of ensuring law and order collecting taxes, and providing labour for public works, they were generally left alone. The result was that the prisons served the purpose of punishing those who had the guts to oppose colonial administration in one form or the other while at the same time cowing those who might want to stir up trouble for the colonial set up.
The person regulation was published in 1917 to prescribe admission, custody, treatment and classification procedures as well as staffing, dieting and clothing regimes for the prisons. These processes were limited in one very sense. They were not geared towards any particular type of treatment of inmates. Instead they represent just policies of containment of those who were already in prison. Besides, they were limited in application to those who were convicted or remanded in custody by criminal courts of the British-inspired supreme or provincial types. Those remanded or convicted by the native courts were sent to Native authority prisons. The prison regulation also distinguished between Awaiting Trail and Convicted Inmates application of this general rule to the national prison while the native authority prison went their own way effectively stultified the appearance of a national prison goal- orientation in terms of inmate treatment.
It was not until 1934 that any meaningful attempt was made to introduce relative modernization into the prison service. It was at this time that Colonel V.L. Mabb was appointed Director of prisons by the then Governor Sir Donald Cameron. Although a military officers, Mabb had an understanding of what prisons should be. And he went on to do his best. What he seemed to have focused his attention on was the formation of a unified prison structure for the whole country but he failed. Yet he succeeded in extending the substantive Director of prisons Supervisory and inspectoral power over the Native Authority Prisons by this time dominant in the North. It was also during his tenure that the prisons warders’ welfare Board was formed.
His efforts were to be continued by his successor R.H. Dolan (1946-1955). Mr. Dolan was a trained prisons officer and when he assumes duties in Nigeria he already had a wealth of experience ion prison administration in both Britain and the colonies. Although a scheme for the introduction of vocational training in the National prisons had been introduced in 1917 and it failed except in Kaduna and Lokoja prisons where it was functioning in 1926, Mr. Dolan reintroduced it in 1949 as a cardinal part of a penal treatment in Nigeria. He also made classification of prisoners mandatory in all prisons and went on to introduce visits by relations to inmates. He also introduced progressive earning schemes for long term first offenders. He also transferred the prisons Head quarters formerly in Enugu to Lagos to facilitate close cooperation with other department of state. He also introduced moral and adult education classes to be handled by competent ministers and teachers for both Christian and Islamic education programmes for recreation and relaxation of prisons were introduces during his tenure as well as the formation of an association for the care and rehabilitation of discharged prisoners. But above all. He initiated a programme for the construction and expansion of even bigger convict prisons to enhance the proper classification and accommodation of prisoners.
On manpower developments he was instrumental to the prison training school, Enugu in 1947. He also saw to the appointment of educated wardresses to take charge of the female wings of the service conditions of the prison staff. In addition, he took classification a step further when in 1948 he opened four reformatories in Lagos and converted part of the Port-Harcourt prisons for the housing and treatment of juveniles, five years later he was to build an open prison in Kakuri-Kaduna to take care of first offenders who had committed such crimes as murder and manslaughters, and who are serving term of 15years or more. The idea was to train them with minimum supervision in agriculture so that on discharge they could employ themselves gainfully. In fact, Dolan’s tenure represented a very high point in the evolution of Nigeria prisons service.
1.3 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF LAFIAGI TOWN
Lafiagi town is bi=bounded in the north by Niger state in the south, is bounded by Shonga and Gbugbu while Patagi Local government on the east – side of the town.
The Lafiagi town covers a land mass of about 1849 sq kilometers, the largest populace of this town concentrated on agriculture as a result of abundant fertile farm land. The town has some satellites town like Isaragi, Shonga, Patigi and a number of villages surrounding it, also historical lafiagi main market is at the center of the town, lafiagi is now the headquarters of the Edu local government council most of the traditional emirates inhabitants are Muslim Nupe people.
A market centre for rice, yams, sorghum, millet, corn (maize), sugarcane, kolanuts, peanuts (groundnuts), palm produce, fish, cattle, and cotton, the town is also a collecting point for the rice grown on the fasamas (flood plains0 of the Niger and for dried fish. Cotton weaving is traditionally important. Lafiagi has a government maternity clinic dispensing general hospital. Population (2008) 30,976.
MOTIVATION/JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT TOPIC
Today Nigeria is facing the problem of insecurity and also the problem of unemployment in the country which increases the rate of crimes committed in this country such as rapping, robbery, and smoking e.t.c
So it is my desire to embark on this project and design a well functional medium security prison at Lafiagi.
Nowadays, due to unemployment in the country, there are many criminal activities such as robbery, raping, smoking, murder e.t.c. the alarming rate of these crimes requires the provision of medium security prisons at strategic areas across the country. The capacity of Lafiagi is 34 and presently occupied over 100 prisoners.
For the above stated reasons, it is my desire to design a well functional and modern prison to house convict, C.C, ATM, ATF criminals.
1.6 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To design a well functional and aesthetically balance building that will suit the taste of time and easy to maintain.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
1.8 RESEARCH MTHODOLOGY
This project is undertaking by way of careful selection of some methods. The methods involved are:
This assessment does appear to have implications both for prison authorities and prison inmates as well for the Nigeria prison Authorities, the international standards states that each prisoner must have enough space, although definitions of adequacy vary from country to country and depend among other factors on how much time prisoner spend in their cells. It is one thing to sleep in a confided space another to spend 23 hours a day. The prison standard minimum rules do say that all cells and perimeter walls and dormitories must have adequate heating, lighting and ventilation and that every detained or inmate should have his/her own bed or mattress with clean bedding to enhance the psychological well being of the inmates fall short of these basic needs.
Moreover, the prisons studied for this research work will hold more prisoners than the official capacity. By implication, the minimum required standard in respect of dimensions e.g. minimum space per prisoner should not less than 3.4 sq