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The Project File Details
Background of the study
Soap is formed by chemical reaction involving caustic soda and fatty acid by a process known as saponification. In this reaction, salt of fatty acid is formed. There are two different caustic soda, potassium hydroxide which forms soft and liquid soap, sodium hydroxide that forms hard when used in production.
Longman (2000) viewed soap as class of product that serve and clans surrounding with a high demand of foaming agent in the society. It is a cleansing agent described chemical as an alkaline metal salt of a long carbon chain mono carboxytic acid. The hydrocarbon portion is hydrophobic while carboxylate portion is hydrophilic.
Vin Pansky and Glady’s (2001) in England generalized soap as a class of substances known as surface agent or surfactants. These are substances which when dissolved in a solvent even at very low concentration have the property of hovering the surface energy and hence alter the surface behaviour of the solvent to an extreme degree. In general, the surface active agents are composed of fairly large molecules which contain separate groups of dissimilar nature, one group being of hydrophilic or water alternating character which the other group has a hydropholic or oil attracting character and it also exhibits its actions in aqeous and non aqeous system .
Slieves et al (2004) said that high quality industrial soap can be produced using sodium hydroxide and vegetable oil. Ordinarily, soap today is simply a mixture of sodium salts of long chain fatty acid. Fatty acids are the basic raw materials such as caustic soda and various sodium phosphates. A large number of additives aiming towards the production of high quality soap include various herbal extract.
In the production of toilet soap involving herbal extracts, fat slitting and distillation of plant upstream is required and is therefore mostly found in integration of plant chemistry with fine chemicals. This soap can be kept for a long duration still maintaining very high quality and cleaning effectiveness which is the criteria of patronage by quality soap buyers.
Statement of the Problem
Nowadays, people are using different herbal toilet soaps that are expensive and less effective. The expensive nature of the herbal soaps in the market is due to the costly integration of specific extracts with fine chemicals used in their production. Furthermore, it is a challenge to device an easy way of producing cheap and affordable effective herbal toilet soap for human skin care.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to produce an effective and less expensive or affordable toilet soaps using Aloevera, Basil, and Guava leaf extracts. These herbs contain major antioxidant pigments, antimicrobial properties carotene and polyphenols giving them high dietary antioxidant values among plants. The benefits in using these herbs in soap production are that they have properties that can prevent and cure many chains of infections and dual diseases. They also have the capability of restoring healthy skin in individual whose skins are diseased. Vin Pansky and Glady’s (2001).
The general purpose of the study is practical appraisal to effective teaching and learning of production of soap.
Specifically, the study intends:
Significance of the Study
The study would be of immense significance to the following categories of people:
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers the effect of three different herbal extracts on the production of toilet soap with their controls. The study finds out their impact on various soap properties on its treatment. It also finds out the differential effect on the proportion of combinations on students body bearing in mind two sample methods of producing soap.
What are herbs that have skin smoothness and cleansing properties?