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The Project File Details
This project is motivated by the need to study the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on leadership styles in organizations. Having observed the importance of strong and strategic leadership to the success of an organization, there is a need to appraise the impact of EI in the workplace. The objectives of the study are to examine the impact of EI on leadership styles, to identify the impact of the adopted leadership styles on the productivity of the team, to study the various challenges associated with motivating employees, to assess the facilities put in place to monitor employee satisfaction and to evaluate the level of EI within the research sample. Two research hypotheses were formulated in line with the objectives of the study. The survey study method which allows a researcher to use questionnaire or direct interview to gather relevant data was adopted for the study with a sample size of 97. A structured questionnaire was administered and was the main instrument used for data collection. The data collected was subjected to face validity test. The ANOVA and chi – square (x2) techniques were used to test the hypotheses. The results indicate that: the EI level of leaders is a critical success factor for enhanced team performance.
The study showed that a team leader’s EI affects team level emotional competence and team performance through the development of emotionally competent group norms (EGCNs). This study also supports the assertion that the EGCN affect team performance. Majority of the respondents agree that EI influences the success with which leaders interact with colleagues, the strategies they use to manage conflict and stress and overall job performance.
List of abbreviations
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSES AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
When the concept of EI was first popularized in 1995, it was touted as the missing link as to why people with average Intelligence Quotients (IQs) outperform those with the highest IQs 70% of the time. This anomaly led to a re-evaluation of what was assumed to be the sole source of success IQ. Subsequently, decades of research now point to EI as a critical factor that sets star performers apart from the rest of the pack. Among other measures, the level of EI may be measured by the Emotional Quotient (EQ) through the use of personality tests and questionnaires.
In the workplace, EI has been associated with the extent to which managers conduct themselves in ways that are supportive of the goals of the organization, according to the ratings of their supervisors. Similarly, EI is hypothesized to influence the success with which leaders interact with employees, the strategies they use to manage conflict and stress and overall job performance. The level of EQ quantifies that “extra something” in each of us that is intangible. It affects how we manage behavior, navigate social complexities, and make personal decisions that achieve positive results.
EI is made up of four core skills that pair up under two primary competencies: personal competence and social competence.
EI, intelligence and personality are essential and distinct parts of the whole of an individual. EI taps into a fundamental element of human behavior that is distinct from intellect. There is no known connection between the IQ and EI i.e. you simply cannot predict EI based on how smart an individual is. Intelligence is the ability to learn, and it’s the same at age 15 as it is at age 50. EI, on the other hand, is a flexible set of skills that can be acquired and improved with practice. Although some people have naturally higher levels of EQ than others, levels of EQ can be easily improved. Personality is the final piece of the puzzle. It’s the stable “style” that defines a person. Personality is the result of hard-wired preferences, such as the inclination toward introversion or extroversion. However, like IQ, personality can’t be used to predict EI. Similar to IQ, personality is mostly stable over a lifetime and rarely changes. IQ, EI, and personality each cover unique grounds and help to explain what makes a person tick.
Also, it is often argued that a leader’s level of EI influences the development of the group’s emotional intelligence (GEI), which is measured by a team’s ECGN. Secondly, it is hypothesized that the presence of ECGNs will positively influence team effectiveness. EI competencies have been shown to be significantly related to individual performance both in cognitive tasks where the individual is under stress and in tasks where individuals are interdependent on one another. At the team level, the study of emotions and the effects of emotions on team performance is a relatively new avenue of research. Since teamwork is an inherently social activity, emotions play an important role in team effectiveness.
Generally, manufacturing firms follow the traditional hierarchical organizational structure, consisting of a Board of Directors, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operations Officer, department heads, team leaders and then employees. The key functions of a manufacturing company include production, purchasing, marketing, technical, accounting, and customer service. The leadership style and corporate attitude of the organization has a direct impact on team performance. A team leader is the fulcrum of the team and determine the success or failure of the team at achieving organizational objectives. Hence, significant effort is put into the recruitment and training of leaders to ensure the smooth execution of management strategies through proper utilization of the organizational resources.
Typically, team leaders are responsible for breaking down the organizational goals into achievable tasks to be executed by mid-level and junior staff, as well as monitoring performance. Employees (human capital) are a key resource in achieving the goal of any organization. Usually, employees are subject to the leadership style and direction of the team leader. The achievement of organizational goals is hinged on the team leader’s ability to motivate employees towards attaining set targets. This ability is heavily influenced by EI, as the team leader’s EI is a key determinant of his leadership style and consequently, his method of motivating employees.
Upon this background, this study is poised to investigate and appraise to the best of the researcher’s ability the impact of EI on leadership styles in organizations.
The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between a team leader’s EI competencies and the emergence of emotionally competent norms in a team using selected manufacturing firms in Enugu as a case study. Specifically, the study examines the relationship between the EI of a leader and the GEI as well as the effect team performance. The enumerated objectives include the following:
In manufacturing firms, production activities are executed by teams headed by a leader. Having observed the essential nature of highly functioning teams for achieving the goals of manufacturing firms, there is a need to evaluate the effect of EI on the team leader’s management style. As a result, an appraisal of the adopted management style regarding the achievement of set objectives is required. Relevant economic data and indicators need to be generated to make an informed decision on whether the adopted leadership style is appropriate or needs to be changed. Without relevant economic data, there will be a great challenge in attempting to analyze the true impact of the team leader’s leadership style on team performance, as various theories have been propounded with differing views on the subject matter.
Several scholars have attempted to provide a definition of various dimensions of EI. However, few studies presented a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of a leader’s EI on achieving organizational targets in developing countries. Most studies totally ignore the economic benefits while some do not fully acknowledge the downsides of its absence. This is often due to a poor understanding of the intricacies of such theories. Although some studies have been conducted in other countries or economies, it is important to note that it is difficult to translate studies on leadership styles from one country to another. Even leadership styles that appear similar across countries on the surface may be different due to cultural, historical and legal variations. Thus, the need to carry out this study to reflect the impact of a leader’s EI in the Nigerian manufacturing environment and the conditions attaching thereto.
This study intends to provide an answer to the following questions:
Hi: There is a significant relationship between the leadership style of a team leader the achievement of organizational goals.
Hi: The EI of a team leader has a significant impact on the leadership style adopted.
The study was limited to selected manufacturing firms within the Enugu metropolis.
The scope of the study was limited due to time constraints which did not permit the researcher to cover the entire state within the academic session.
Funding was also identified to be a constraint, and as such the researcher was not able to cover the entire population of Enugu State. However, samples were selected at random from the target population and they served as a fair representation of the entire population.
Finally, the researcher was constrained by bureaucratic bottlenecks, as in certain cases, some team leaders were reluctant to release vital information that would aid the success of the researcher.
The findings of this study are relevant considering the role of manufacturing activities in our society today. The production of goods and/or services for consumption is the ultimate aim of every organization and how it is handled can either make or mar the organization. Most organizations have yet to quantify the importance of EI in the development of highly functioning teams. The findings of this study will contribute in explaining the benefits of recruiting /appointing team leaders with high levels of EQ, as this is a critical success factor for enhanced team effectiveness.
The study will also examine the interactions between EI, intelligence and personality, to determine whether the level of EQ of team leaders across the sample group has a negative or positive effect on the team’s performance.
Furthermore, the study will give justification to the introduction of personality tests and questionnaires into the recruitment exercises of many companies. It will also explain whether it is appropriate to encourage the widespread implementation of personality tests to be taken by employees before promotion to leadership positions.
Various challenges and prospects to the enhancing team performance will be identified and recommendations would be made based on the identified challenges. These will enable various stakeholders tackle these challenges effectively. Specifically, the study is relevant to strategic decision makers who rely on micro-economic indices to formulate business strategy. The study is also relevant to students of business management as the findings will contribute to broaden their knowledge about the subject matter.