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The Project File Details
This field study examined the effects of Management by Objectives on organizational performance and satisfaction with the work and supervision among employees in a human services agency. Although not all the quantity measures improved significantly, the combined measure for quantity of performance and one of two quality measures showed significant improvement following implementation of Management by Objectives.
Satisfaction with supervision also significantly improved but not satisfaction with work. The study lends support to the use of Management by Objectives in public sector organizations.
Management by objectives Management by Objectives has been advocated as a tool to improve management effectiveness for over twenty-five years. Drucker (1954) first advocated Management by Objectives as a systematic approach to setting objectives that would lead to improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. A multitude of public sector business organizations and public sector organizations have implemented some form of Management by Objectives. A number of descriptive articles provide testimonials to the effectiveness of Management by Objectives, but few comprehensive studies have tested these claims. Most of the Management by Objectives literature has focused on describing the technique, suggesting the steps for implementation, and listing the advantages and disadvantages of adopting an Management by Objectives program. For example, McConkie, (1979), has a comprehensive summary of thirty-nine experts’ descriptions of the nature of Management by Objectives
Title page i
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.5 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
4.1 DISTRIBUTION AND COLLECTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Management needs a lot of tools to be able to administer effectively in the day to day running of the business. Management by objectives is one of such tools. It is a way of getting improved results in managerial action. Management by objectives can be described as a managerial method where by the superior and the subordinate managers in an organization identify major areas of responsibility, in which they will work, set some standards for good or bad performance and the measurement of results against those standards Derek (2005:156).
Management by objective is also called Managing By Objectives. However, there have been certain individuals who have long placed emphasis on management by objectives and by so doing have given impetus to its development as a system. Management by objectives refers to a structured management technique of setting goals for any organizational unit.
George S. Odiorne (1981:1) in his book management by objectives defined this concept as “a system of management whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected, and use these objectives and expected results as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its member. Besides, Odiorne points out that management by objectives is a “system of management” an overall frame work used to guide the organizational unit and outline its direction. He went further to point out that “the superior and subordinate jointly identify objectives”. In other words, it is a participative management procedure that requires commitment and co-operation. The definition deals with identifying the “results” that are expected. Thus management by objectives concentrates on the output of the organisation evaluating people by assessing their contribution to this output.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is pertinent to note that management of companies in Nigeria. Lack sufficient technique to make them manage well. Some of these tools are not used and when used they are not properly utilized. Management by objective if not only a managerial strategy to achieve a well co-ordinated managerial goals, but it is also a popular management technique that cut across or pervade all human activities namely; business areas, educational, government, health care and non-profit organization.
Most of these objectives are hardly understood resulting in losses, breakage’s and on so. The worse are business in the medium range where most banks fall. Most companies hand down objectives to subordinates without adequate explanation, hence failure of management by objectives in such cases. Management by objectives will remove all of these problems mentioned above and subordinates will now formulate objectives, set targets according to their strength and weaknesses, no stoppages, no delays, no losses to the companies. This will help subordinates to formulate realizable goals.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to find out the prospects and problems of effective utilization of management by objectives in companies in Nigeria.
The specific objective of the study includes: –
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In pursuit of the research objective of the study, the following research questions have been formulated.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS.
Hi: MBO will not improve the quality of performance in a public sector agency.
Ho: MBO will improve the quality of performance in a public sector agency.
Hi: There MBO will not improve the satisfaction of public sector employees with their supervision.
Ho: MBO will improve the satisfaction of public sector employees with their supervision.
Hi: MBO will not improve the satisfaction of public sector employees with the work itself
Ho: MBO will improve the satisfaction of public sector employees with the work itself
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Practicing management by objective will make the management of GlaxoSmithKline Nigeria Plc. to be move assertive in their decision making. It will assist the subordinate in GlaxoSmithKline Nigeria Plc to be able to identify themselves with the objectives of the company and the role they will play.
It will assist subordinates to be able to formulate their individual or group objectives, which are reliable. This will result in total commitment to objective and efficiency and effectiveness will result.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to GlaxoSmithKline Nigeria Plc and how different organisation can be managed better by the managers setting the goals and all the company members working towards achieving the goals.
There are many factors that act as constraint to the effort of the researcher in the course of writing this project. Most prominent of the factors are:
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MBO: Management by Objective
Referrals. The amount of contacts i n the field that a counselor made to- ward finding vocational rehabilitation clients—this helped increase the number of referrals that the individual counselor received. Referrals were the names of potential clients that the counselor received over a period of one month.
Acceptances. According to federal regulations, a person must pass an eligibility test in order to qualify for services. This acceptance test involved several operations by the counselor in terms of paperwork and/or calls with several agencies.
Plans written. Once a client was accepted, the counselor would write a behavioral, objective plan for rehabilitation. If the client decided to change programs, a new plan would be written. Plans written, there- fore, were activities by the counselor toward completing the program of the client.
Rehabilitations. Once the client passed through the rehabilitation pro- gram and found employment for sixty continuous workdays, the counselor could consider the individual rehabilitated. Rehabilitations made were a good indication of the activity of the counselor in insuring that the individual progressed through the program and was successfully placed.
1.9 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND OF GLOXOSMITHKLINE NIGERIA PLC AGBARA
GlaxoSmithKline Nigeria Plc. Was incorporated in 1971 in the United Kingdom with the shares of the company held 46.4 percent and 53.6 percent by Nigeria shared holders. GlaxoSmithKline is formed through the manager of Glaxo welcome and SmithKline Beecham (GSK).
In 2001 GlaxoSmithKline move to its new UK headquarters in Brent ford, west London (NSK) Hoer consist of an internal fully-glazed street, the building was designed with input from employees, GlaxoSmithKline re-organize its research and development effort into centers of excellence for drugs development (CEDDS) small business unit that emphasize flexibility, innovation and therapeutic focus GlaxoSmithKline makes the19th anniversary of AET, the first medicine used to treat Hiv/Aids. By the end of 2002 GlaxoSmithKline had secured 120 arrangements to supply preferentially priced Hiv/Aids medicine to 50 of the World’s poorest countries.
In 2003 and 2004, ten (10) million people in Sri Laika receive free doses of GlaxoSmithKline donated albendaole to help prevent the transmission of lymphatic filariasis. GlaxoSmithKline also launches its clinical trial register can internet site contemning clinical trial data that anyone can access GlaxoSmithKline is the first pharmaceutical company to offer this level of transparency for its clinical trial data.
In 2006 GlaxoSmithKline produce over 10 million packs of anti-flu treatment Relenza in one year to boost its consumer health care portfolio, GlaxoSmithKline acquire CNS in producers of the breathe right nasal dilator strips and fiber clone dietary fiber supplements the end of 2006, 600 million treatment for lymphatic filariasis had been donated as part of the company commitment t eradicate award for effort to and lymphatic filariasis.
In 2007 and 2008, it was a busy years for acquisition, GlaxoSmithKline acquire domains a leader in developing antibody therapies, passes pharmaceuticals a biopharmaceuticals coming and reliant pharmaceutical, a producer of cardioliacular medicine. GlaxoSmithKline submission of combination vaccine Glaxorix to the European medicines agency (EMEA) with the intention of producing the vaccine to Africa with no commercial reward. Andrew witty name CEO designate to replace IP Griner in may 2008.
And finally in 2010 GlaxoSmithKline contribute $1.4 million of medicine to support victims of the Haiti Earthquake GlaxoSmithKline announce open innovation strategy to help deliver new and better medicine for people living in the world’s profit countries new collaborations will share intellectual property for neglected tropical diseases such as malaria, GlaxoSmithKline join global vaccine alliance to help prevent milliard of children from contracting prieumacoccal disease in the world’s in poorest countries. The company is engage in the manufacturing marketing and distributing of a wide range of health brands such as panadol, Andrew liver salts, Macleans, Aqua fresh, Phensic, Lucosade, Ribena and a range of internationally acclaimed. Pharmaceutically, Amoxil and Alimentation (antibiotic) zantal (the authemintic), Halfan (anti malaria) and vaccines etc.