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The Project File Details
The study investigated and evaluated Industrial stress on management effectiveness at Unilever Nigeria Plc. The study sought to find out how work related stress could affect the productivity of staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc. In addition, it identified certain factors which contribute to job stress among Unilever Nigeria Plc. The systematic sampling technique was used to select 150 participants for the study. The result of this study revealed that work load was the major cause of job stress among staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc. It was further observed that respondent in order to relieve stress often walk around and visit other colleagues in their office to discuss matters irrelevant to work thereby affecting productivity at the Unilever Nigeria Plc.
Health-wise, some members of staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc had developed chronic back pain, an effect of long sitting hours and standing hours at work. Management commitment to staff issues such as paying attention to work load conflicts, supervisors recognition of outstanding output of staff and the introduction of proper stress management training programmes were perceived as significant steps which if embraced were identified as major contributory factors that could contribute to improve productivity of staff and boost output of staff.
TITLE PAGE i
1.0 INTRODUCTION 2
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 2
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 3
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY 3
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 4
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 4
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5
1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 8
2.2 ORIGIN, TERMINOLOGY & DEFINITION OF STRESS 9
2.3 NATURE OF STRESS 11
2.4 STRESS PROCESS OR RESPONSE STAGES 11
2.5 TYPES OF STRESS 11
2.9 CAUSE OF STRESS AT WORK 12
2.12 SYMPTOMS OF STRESS ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY 13
2.13 THE IMPACTS OF STRESS ON THE ORGANIZATION 14
2.14 THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON PRODUCTIVITY 17
2.15 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 19
2.16 STRESS AT WORK MODEL 20
2.17 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK 22
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 24
3.2 POPULATION SIZE 24
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE 25
3.4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 25
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 25
3.6 RELIABILITY OF THE STUDY 26
3.7 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT 26
3.8 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 26
3.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 26
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT 28
4.1 INTRODUCTION 28
4.2 PRESENTATION OF DATA 29
4.3 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE 30
4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 32
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 33
5.1 SUMMARY 33
5.2 CONCLUSION 34
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 34
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In today’s world, stress has become a worldwide phenomenon, which occurs in various forms in every workplace. In today’s work life, employees are generally working for longer hours, as the rising levels of responsibilities require them to exert themselves even more strenuously to meet rising expectations about work performance. Omolara (2008) described occupational stress as the adverse psychological and physical reactions that occur in an individual as a result of their being unable to cope with the demands being made on them.
According to Topper (2007) Vermut and Stensma (2005), Ornels and Kleiner (2003) Verca (1999) in addition, job stressed is caused by lack of resources and equipment, work schedules such as working late or overtime and organizational climate are considered as contributors to staff stress.
Stress can therefore be described as the adverse psychological and physical reactions that occur in an individual as a result of his or her inability to cope with the demands being made on him or her (Moorhead and Griffen, 1998).
Michac (1997) specified causes of stress as follows: poor time management, unclear job descriptions, feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, inability to get things done, lack of communication, bad personal relationships, quality and complexity of tasks. In the same breadth, Dean (2002) viewed stress-related illnesses as the leading cause for low productivity levels in the workplace. Therefore, this is to find out the effect of job stress on staff performance and management and staff to manage stress effectively at Nestle Nigeria Plc. To acquire a clearer understanding of variable of industrial stress.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current turbulent environment in which some worker conduct their work require that organization examine their practices working in the Unilever Nigeria Plc is an inherently stressful profession with long working hours, heavy workloads, difficult customer and conflicting demand. The effects of stress are evidenced as increase errors in lateness to work, low productivity and increased sick leaves. Despite the extremely negative effect of job stress on human body and work performance.
It is in this view that this study is being conducted to identify the effect of stress has on the productivity of staffs of Unilever Nigeria Plc. Furthermore, there has not been a conscious establishment of a linkage between job stress and its negative effect on productivity.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are to:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions guided the study:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Research hypothesis are in two forms:
H0: There is no significant relationship between job stresses on productivity.
H1: There is a significant relationship between job stresses on productivity.
H0: Job stress on productivity does not reduce turn over.
H1: Job stress on productivity reduces turn over.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focused on Unilever Nigeria Plc. as one of the major ports of entry in Nigeria so as to get an in depth and comprehensive understanding of what is happening at Nestle Nigeria Plc and makes the research meaningful.
Drawbacks are an inevitable part of almost every venture individuals carry out and overcoming them prepares or fortifies one for other tasks ahead. Even though these challenges to some extent hampered the progress of the study, they also helped in putting researchers on their toes to work tirelessly around the clock in making the success of this study a reality.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of stress on staff productivity. The researcher ensures the effective management of stress for their employees. The study will also add to existing store of knowledge. It will also provide suggestions on how to reduce the effects of stress on output. Again, it will be a source for further research and of relevance to stakeholders.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was necessarily limited in scope due to series of resource limitations as well as practical research limitations and notable ones were: Time constraint, in the sense that time allocated for conducting this study was very short to allow for adequate data collection and this short time had to be divided between the main academic work which included preparation for face to face and examinations.
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Definition of term will expatiate more on the following term:
1.10 BRIEF HISTORY OF NESTLE NIGERIA PLC
Lever Brother Nigeria Plc (Rc 113) a leading company in the manufacturing industry is involved in the manufacturing of detergents, soaps, kin cream, toothpaste, odibles and fats, tea and coffee as well as range of petroleum jellies and other personal care products.
The company first came into existence in Nigeria Limited compliance with the company matters deree 1990, the company changed from “Limited liability Company”name ot “Public Liability Company” in 6th June 2001, there is new name and new name and new head office situated at Agbara.
The company changed top the name Unilever Nigeria Plc with new corporate headquarters at Oregun Lagos
In accordance with Nigeria enterprises promotion acts of 1972 and 1977, 60% of the company equity has been sold to held by unilencent overseas holding limited Lipton tea company limited and cheese brought ponds infernaturay limited. The company strengthened its foot holds in the Nigeria Limited in 1995 respectively.
Currently Unilever Nigeria Plc operates three factories which are located at Agbara, Isolo and Aba the company started the business of producing bar soup using palmal. Eversince, expansion has taken place to include the productivity of toilet soap brand like Lux, Astral, Asepso, Vim Scouring powder, Pepsodent and close-up toothpaste.
The Aba factory in Imo State, which was commissioned in 1958, produced sunlight and key laudry soaps initially. In 1980, and additional plant was installed for the production of Rin detergent soap.
Agbara factory in Ogun State was commissioned in 1983 for the manufacturing of edible products. It produces Blue Band and Planta Margarine, industries oils and fast and vegetable oil in December 1989. The factory started producing a food seasoning Royco the lipson tea factor formally at Apapa was relocated to Agbara in Order to consolidate the production of their food products in one location Cheese brought products of the company, manufactures the popular Vaseline petroleum jelly and ponds range of skin and hair care products
Unilever range of quantity is distributed end sold at uniform prices all over the country through an established and tested distribution network. Using distribution by their trained staff, the Company has direct staff strength of over 2500 employees spread over the three factories and various distribution points throughout the nation it also provides employment for over five thousand (5000) supplied, transporters, distribution etc.
The company his been dedicated to the production of high quality product for Nigeria for over sixty years.