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The Project File Details
This is a research work carried out to evaluate the impact of printing advertisement on
products in Nigeria with particular reference to Emmasco Arts & Prints, Ojo, Lagos. Data for
the research were collected through primary.
The collected data were analyzed in tables and simple percentages, while the hypotheses
were tested using the chi square technique.
Given three hypotheses as stated in chapter one, these hypotheses were tested critically in
chapter four to reveal the authenticity of responses by the respondents to the research
In the final analysis, attempts were made to bring to summary the tested research hypotheses.
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of the study
Printing Advertising has become a powerful communication tool in passing message about
the products and services to both customers and potential customers. When there is adequate
awareness through advertising, high patronage will be achieved, which will result to an
increase in sales volume, productivity and profit level of the organizations.
However, poor product communication to the final consumers could give competitors an
edge in term of loyalty to brands, sales volume and high market share. Consequence of this
has been the major setbacks for matured industries.
Contemporary strategic marketing practice calls for more than developing a good product or
service, pricing it adequately, and making it available totarget customers or clients.
Organizations should also promote their products and services to present and potential
customers and clients. Udel (1968) identified marketing promotions as the most important
facet of marketing strategy leading to effectiveness. Printing Advertising, an aspect of
promotional strategy, has both an informative and persuasive role, and in this respect can
alter customers’/clients’ perceptions of a product or service. As Pickering (1976) suggests,
advertising can increase brand loyalty, thereby decreasing price elasticity through increased
differentiation. Bain (1956) posits that advertising can have a cumulative and long lasting
effect on organisational and strategic performance.
Akanbi and Adeyeye (2011) believe that advertising campaign cannot solely be responsible
for recorded increase in sales. Other unrecognizable factors like higher income for potential
customers, reduced problems of competitors, improved customer relation of distributors and
retailers and other unnoticeable factors apart from the campaign may be responsible for the
company’s improved sales (Akanbi and Adeyeye, 2011). Morden (1991) believes that
advertising gives the knowledge about the product and create the idea in mind about it.
Busari (2002) as cited in Adekoya (2011) says that advertisements can also be seen on the
seats of grocery carts, on the wall of airport walkways, on the sides of buses, airplane and
train. Advertisements are usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently
access visual and /or video. Akanbi and Adeyeye, (2011) discover that advertising as a subset
of promotion mix has a significant effect on sales turnover. Adekoya (2011) finds that
advertising influence consumer buying behavior, which means that it helps to increase sales
turnover. It is on this premise that this research work wishes to examine the impact of
printing advertising on a product in Nigeria with special reference to Emmasco Arts & Print
Company, Ojo, Lagos.
1.2 Statement of problem
Printing Advertisement is costly; often its effects are uncertain, and sometimes it takes a
while before it makes any impact on consumers’ buying behavior. It is for these reasons that
many companies think it appropriate, occasionally to reduce expenditures on printing
advertising or to entirely eliminate it. On the other hand, some companies sometimes
consider it unnecessary to advertise when their brands are already enjoying great success
without printing advertisement. Such behavior implicitly fails to consider the fact that
advertising is not just a current expense or mere exercise but an investment.
Often, when asked the non-price reason behind their choice for a particular brand of product
over another, most consumers will readily shout “Quality”. However, one would accept this
answer with a lot of ambivalence, given the fact that it is only on rare occasions that
consumers would have what it takes to make an objective quality differentiation among
alternative product brands. This category of consumers is highly informed and enlightened
and their percentage is quite negligible in Nigeria.
In the regulated consumer products industry in Nigeria, it may be expected that the issue of
“better quality” should not arise. This is against the backdrop that the National Agency for
Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) has stipulated and is seriously
enforcing both production and marketing standards for all producers of consumer products
thereby making every brand of consumer products of equal purity and quality, yet most
consumers of these products would readily pay a premium price or are price insensitive when
it comes to the purchase of a particular brand. This gets one wondering, could it be that
consumers in making choice are merely responding to the outcome of their perception which
is a function of such attributes like brand name, mark, package, company-of-make etc. A
point to note is the fact that most producers strongly believe that advertising also, has a very
high influence on consumer’s choice (Ogbuji, 2008).
However, given the fact that many elements contribute to the buying decision of the
consumers, one is not sure if these elements play equal role in influencing choice or if some
play a higher role than others. This is the crux of the problem of this study. The study
therefore, seeks to establish how printing advertisement has been used by companies as a
marketing tool, its impact on the performance of companies and suggest how it can be
effectively used on a product in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the study
This research is based on the drive to know the impact of printing advertisement on a product
in Nigeria and how this print media can keep the company going in business. Other specific
i. To assess the extent to which an advertising programme reflects on the overall
performance of company’s products.
ii. To identify the major merits and demerits of advertising
iii. To determine if advertisement increases consumer’s preference of a particular product
iv. To determine the role of advertisement in marketing of consumer goods
1.4 Research Questions
This research intends to consider the following questions:
i. Does printing advertisement have an impact on company’s products?
ii. To what extent does printing advertisement affect the overall performance of
iii. Is printing advertisement an effective tool in marketing of products?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
i. Ho: Printing advertisement does not have an impact on company’s products
Hi: Printing advertisement has an impact on company’s products
ii. Ho: Printing advertisement does not affect the overall performance of company’s
Hi: Printing advertisement affects the overall performance of company’s products
iii. Ho: Printing advertisement is not an effective tool in marketing of products
Hi: Printing advertisement is not an effective tool in marketing of products
1.6 Scope of the study
This study looks at the impact of printing advertisement on a product in Nigeria. The study
covered advertising as the independent variable and Printing Advertisement performance as
the dependent variable.
1.7 Significance of the study
An evaluation of the effectiveness of printing advertisement on the marketing of consumer
products is of importance to any organization engaged in the production/marketing of
consumer products since it determines to a great extent the organization’s efficiency through
The findings of this research will reveal the importance of advertising and is hoped to
enhance better quality advertising programmes by companies involved in the business of
marketing consumer products.
Finally, the study will be significant to students and researchers since it will enlarge the
existing literatures on the areas of effective advertising and sales.
1.8 Limitation of the study
This research study was constrained by several factors and these include inadequate finance,
insufficient time, inadequate data and release of information. These factors may have
somehow limited the outcome of this research work
1.9 Definition of key terms
Advertising: According to Arens (2004:7), advertising is the structured and composed nonpersonal
communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature,
about products (goods, services or ideas) by identified sponsors through various media
Advertising Agencies: These are usually independent business organizations comprised of
creative and business personnel, who develop, prepare and place adverts for organizations so
as to attract and influence consumers’ behaviour towards a product or service.
Printing Media: Is a way of referring to newspapers and magazines
Consumer: This is the person(s) to which the advertisement and products/services are
directed. Here they are also known as buyers of a company’s product.
Printing: is the activity or business of producing writing or images on paper or other
material with a machine.
Outdoor Media: These cover the use of billboards, sign posts, posters, handbills, etc. in
communicating the advertising message to the consumers.
Product: This can represent anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a
perceived need. The need not necessarily need to be satisfactory. Some product might not
satisfy their needs.