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By definition labor unions are considered the organizations consisting predominantly of employees, the principle activities of which include only struggling to secure benefits for their members, such as financial gains like rise of wages, bonuses, various allowances insurance benefits, overtime payment and non financial benefits such as job security, comfortable work place recreational facilities and decreasing fear of employer through collective bargaining. But several studies have shown that unions also have rendered services beyond collective bargaining such as human resource development (HRD) through training and education by either stressing employers to arrange such facilities or arranging training and education courses themselves.
Labor unions are considered the organizations only struggling to secure benefits for their members, such as financial gains like rise of wages, bonuses, various allowances insurance benefits, overtime payment and non financial benefits such as job security, comfortable work place recreational facilities and decreasing fear of employer through collective bargaining (Khan and Khan, 2011). The Australian Bureau of Statistics has defined unions as: “An organization, consisting predominantly of employees, the principle activities of which include the negotiation of pay and conditions of employment for its members” (ILO, ‘World Labor Report 1997-1998’) and Knowles and Eade (n.d.) wrote that the core business of labor unions is to organize press for fair terms and conditions of work, negotiate on behalf of the work force, provide services for members, network, and mobilize them. But several studies have shown that unions also have rendered services beyond collective bargaining (Khan, 2010). Livingstone and Raykov (2005) has squeezed many studies and expressed that both formal and informal learning are deeply embedded in many union cultures.
TITLE PAGE i
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.5 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
4.1 DISTRIBUTION AND COLLECTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
4.2 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.0 INTRODUCTION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 5.2 CONCLUSIONS
1.1 Background to The Study
Manpower development has been one of the fundamental issues that have consistently attracted the interest and concern of succeeding government in Nigeria since independence. The Federal Government of Nigeria (1981) realized that if independence was to have meaningful impact on the general well being of its citizen, it must be complemented promptly and definitely by a rapid transformation of the economy to achieve self-reliance. The initial effort of achieving rapid national development were concentrated on the expansion of formal education institution at all levels, and the product were expected to have acquired the skills, knowledge attitude to meet the needs of the vital sector of the economy. It has been established that the greatest assets of a nation are its human resources (men and women, old and young) who are capable of participating in productive labour, capable, natural resources, international trade etc. It become increasingly clear, in government, industry and commerce that economic growth and economic advancement of the country required the services of trained workers and professionals who possesses technological skills and or executive capacity to provide specialized services of all sorts. Most nations today are development conscious. The less developed countries are in a state of war against poverty, ill health, ignorance and dominance by stronger nations. They are no longer willing to entrust their future exclusively to the forces of colonial masters. Even the advance nations are committed to growth, and the more rapid the better. These advance nations are reaching the greater achievement like exploring the outer space and other plants. This universal quest for growth is motivated by rising aspirations for economic, social and political progress and it is based upon the optimistic conviction than man, in this age science can move forward by leaps instead of steps. In essence, the difference in levels of economic development of countries is largely a reflection of the difference in the quality of human resource. The key element in this proposition is that the values, attitudes, general orientation and quality of the people of a country determine its economic development. The shift from manufacturing to service and the increasing pace of technological change are making human resources the crucial ingredient top the nations well being and growth. And in service-oriented industries like banks and railways, the quality, quantity and utilization of human resource become more important. A nation with abundance of physical resources will not benefit unless human resources make use of them. Hence, human resources are solely responsible of making use of natural resources and for the Transformation of traditional economies into the modern and industrial economies. Lack of organization of human resources is largely responsible in the backwardness of a nation.
Countries are underdeveloped because their people are underdeveloped. Doubtlessly, the most significant resource of any organization is often said to be the people. Such claims appear in organizational annual report mission statement.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The cruel nature of Nigerian entrepreneurs have over the years reflected on their emphasis on high profitability without due consideration of the training of the employee that will make this possible. This is readily noticed in the Nigeria banking industry where the employees’ private lives are jeopardized in the course of trying to meet the high demands and targets of the management. Young university graduates who are ignorant of what is happening in the industry often fall in this trap and the economy is not helping matters in any way. This study is designed to evaluate the activities of the trade union as an alternative avenue for manpower development in the country. It’s high time the problem of poor manpower development is visited and a lasting solution provided.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study can be stated as follows:
1.4 Research Questions
The questions for this research are
(i) What impact does active unionism has on the working condition of workers in Nigeria?
(ii) What role does the operation of the trade union play in the national development of Nigeria?
(iii) Does the operation of trade union affect the political stability of Nigeria?
1.5 Formulation of Hypothesis
Ho : There is no impact played by trade union on the working condition of workers in Nigeria.
Hi : There is an impact played by trade union on the working condition of workers in Nigeria.
Ho : Trade union does not play any role in national development.
Hi : Trade union do play a role in national development.
Ho: The operation of trade union does not affect the political stability of Nigeria.
Hi: The operations of trade union do affect the political stability of Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research work is to evaluate and analysis the contribution of Trade Union to Manpower Development in Nigeria. It is hoped that it would contribute to the promotion of the existing frontier or boundary between human knowledge and the role of trade unions in the development of manpower.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study will be limited to the role, which the Labour union plays in manpower development in Nigeria. The research work will be so limited because of the limited availability of data and time. It will also cover some of the publications of the Nigerian Labour Congress.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The study is limited to the survey of importance of contral system generally operating at the of Nigerian labour congress .in carrying out a research of this nature, adeguate time needed to do enough justify to the study, however the time allocated to the study was insufficient to facilitate through investigation on the study and subject matter.
1.9 Operational definitions’ of Terms
DEVELOPMENT: This is the process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.
UNIONS: This is an organization, consisting predominantly of employees, the principle activities of which include the negotiation of pay and conditions of employment for its members” (ILO, ‘World Labor Report 1997-1998’) and Knowles and Evade (N.d.) wrote that the core business of labor unions is to organize press for fair terms and conditions of work, negotiate on behalf of the work force, provide services for members, network, and mobilize them. But several studies have shown that unions also have rendered services beyond collective bargaining (Khan, 2010).
TRAINING: Training is a formal & systematic modification of behavior through learning, which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development, and planned experience. Haslinda (2009) has quoted two definitions of training. One is a lengthy definition by ‘The Manpower Services Commission’ as: “A planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skills through learning experiences to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: HRD is organized learning activities arranged within an organization to improve performance and personal growth for the purpose of improving the job, the individual, and the organization (Gilley and England) (Swanson and Holton, n.d) has quoted a more appealing definition of Smith as: HRD is the process of determining the optimum methods of developing and improving the human resources of an organization and the systematic improvement of the performance employees through training, education and development and leadership for the mutual attainment of organizational and personal goals.
WORKERS’ EDUCATION: is one of the most effective tools in trade union organizing, strengthening and unity. It is meant to provide workers with lifelong learning processes and the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to empower themselves in order to effect changes in workplaces and society. To achieve these, workers education should be participatory and effective and its programs and methodologies should be continuously developed and updated.
MANPOWER PLANNING: Manpower planning is the process of estimating or projecting the number of personnel required for a project (with different skillsets) over a predefined period of time. Manpower. Strategic Planning. Scenario Planning or Contingency Planning
LABOUR ECONOMICS: Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour. Labour markets or job markets function through the interaction of workers and employers. Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services (workers), the demands of labour services (employers), and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income.
In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. It is conventionally contrasted with such other factors of production as land and capital. There are theories which have developed a concept called human capital (referring to the skills that workers possess, not necessarily their actual work).
HUMAN CAPITAL: Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer that refers to the stock of knowledge, habits, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.
Alternatively, human capital is a collection of resources—all the knowledge, talents, skills, abilities, experience, intelligence, training, judgment, and wisdom possessed individually and collectively by individuals in a population. These resources are the total capacity of the people that represents a form of wealth which can be directed to accomplish the goals of the nation or state or a portion thereof.
ORGANIZATION: An organization or organisation (see spelling differences) is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means “organ”.
EVALUATION RESEARCH: Evaluation research can be defined as a type of study that uses standard social research methods for evaluative purposes, as a specific research methodology, and as an assessment process that employs special techniques unique to the evaluation of social programs.