The Project File Details
This research identified the relationship of improved staff performance and organizational achievement beyond targets among the employees of Zenith Bank Plc, Awka. Staff motivation (independent variable) leads to “improved” staff performance (dependent variable) with either negative or positive results depending on the staff perception of equity and inequity rewards. The study discovered that integrative management styles and contingent leadership measures are vital for effective functioning of the organization. These were attained using a sample of 45 respondents (25 senior staff and 20 junior staff) of the organization using stratified probability sampling technique. The primary and secondary sources of data used in the study were validated on face and content value and were analyzed using Chi-square tools. The findings of this study revealed that all employees of the Bank are motivated by monetary incentives and that there is a significant relationship between staff motivation and organizational performance. The study therefore, recommends that financial incentives should be sustained, other reward alternatives should be explored as to integrate various interests, regular training of staff should be embarked on, management should be flexible, approachable but focused while driving the staff towards organizational goals and employees should be consulted directly or indirectly or given options to choose for reward.
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of content vi
1.1 Conceptual Framework 1
1.2 Background of the Research Problem 2
1.3 Statement of Problem 4
1.4 Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Hypothesis for the Study 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Motivation for the Study 6
1.8 Format for the Study 6
1.9 Definition of Terms 7
2.1 Introduction to Motivation 9
2.2 Organizations 17
2.2.1 Definitions of Organization 18
2.2.2 Basic Elements of an Organization 20
2.3 Management Concepts 21
2.3.1 Functions of Management 23
2.4 Concept of Personnel Management 25
2.4.1 Functions of Personnel Management 26
2.4.2 Operative Functions of Personnel Management 27
2.5 Negative Staff Motivation and Its Impact
Towards Organizational Performance 29
2.6 Application of Equitable Motivating Factors 31
2.7 Correlation of Motivation, Staff Performance
And Organizational Achievement 36
2.7.1 Identification and Analysis of the
Correlation of the Variables 38
2.7.2 Measurement Scale of the Variables 39
3.0 Introduction 40
3.1 Design of the Study 41
3.2 Area of the Study 42
3.3 Data Source and Collection 43
3.4 Population of the Study 44
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques 44
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection 45
3.7 Validity and Reliability 46
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 47
3.9 Problems and Limitation of Study 48
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Introduction 50
4.2 Description of Zenith Bank Plc 50
4.3 Testing Hypothesis 60
Discussions of Findings
5.0 Introduction 67
5.1 Discussions of Finding of Hypotheses 68
5.1.1 Finding from Hypothesis One 68
5.1.2 Finding from Hypothesis Two 70
5.1.3 Findings from Hypothesis Three 71
5.4 Implications of Findings 73
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
6.0 Introduction 76
6.1 Summary of findings 79
6.2 Conclusion 81
6.3 Recommendations 82
6.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 83
1.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The conceptual framework adopted for the analysis of
the study is drawn from Fredrick Hertzberg’s “Two factor or
Hygiene Maintenance Theory of Motivation”.
The assumptions of the theory are that need
satisfaction and motivational effects of these satisfactions
are embedded on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The
intrinsic factors are tagged motivators or satisfiers and
involve elements like recognition, work itself (achievements),
responsibility and individual growth. Conversely, the
extrinsic factors called dissatisfiers or hygiene factors
involves salary (money), organizational policy, promotion,
supervisor-subordinate relationship and working condition
are seen as having almost no impact in improving job
satisfaction hence they motivate insignificantly.
However the presence of the satisfiers motivates the
staff and vice versa while the presence of dissatisfiers
neither decrease motivation nor increase it, but may affect
staff job satisfaction. (Onwuchekwa, 1995:131-132 and NIM
The theory is adopted because it is able to capture the
scenario in the organization where money reward is
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Management of business organizations are tasked with
the major function of utilizing human and material
resources in the attainment of organizational goals.
Leadership style in business organizations, particularly
financial institutions, which abinitio is human-faced is
faced with the challenged of satisfying customer’s interest
as well as the attainment of organizational objectives of
profit and staff welfare.
However, the spontaneous growth and challenges
resulting from the recapitalization twisted management style
and ideology from human relations theory towards scientific
or machine theory, not only in the organization of study, but
also in some growing business organizations. The
consequence of this is the near neglect of staff motivations.
Management thinking is that since staff is highly paid, they
ought to devote their entire life in the service of the
organization. Workers are thereby treated more as tools that
could be used and dumped at the whims of management.
This is visible in terms of heavy work load or
assignment of untenable targets. When these demands are
not met, job security of the staff is threatened.
The thesis of the equity theory of motivation used for
analysis shows that motivation ought to be balanced when
applied, so as to be relevant to its purpose. This is because
over-reward or under-rewards result to inequity and
consequently, the failure of the essence of motivation.
Moreover, a factor may play an important role in
determining the inter-relationship between motivation and
increased productivity. Such factors like providing
opportunity for personal need fulfillment (i.e. reward
opportunities) to each worker in a way that encourages his
or her productivity for the organizational. A worker is
motivated by opportunities to achieve and satisfy unfulfilled
needs, the perceived opportunities is seen as incentive and
It is pertinent to state that it is the misapplication of
these salient motivators that necessitates a study of this
nature to serve across various business organizations.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The statement of problem in this study is to
investigate and find out if employee or staff motivation
improves organizational performance. On the basis of the
information from this study, some recommendations will be
made on staff motivation and organizational performance.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are:
1. To create information about employee motivation
and organizational performance.
2. To find out if motivation improves employee
3. To find out if motivation improves organizational
4. To find out the impact of incentives on
5. To make suggestion on how to improve employee
motivation and organizational performance.
1.5 HYPOTHESES FOR THE STUDY
Monetary incentives have no impact on employee
There is no significant relationship between staff motivation
and organizational performance.
There is no significant relationship between employee
motivation and individual employee productivity in the
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importances to be derived from the study are as
a. It will serve as a source of reference for future
b. It will guide management of business organizations in
proper selection of equitable motivational options that
will spur staff towards higher performance.
c. Business organizations and their customers will
benefit from the improved performance of staff duly
1.7 MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY
The propelling interest for the study is to find the
causes of job dissatisfaction and poor performance among
staff of business organizations.
1.8 FORMAT FOR THE STUDY
This study was structured into six chapters for easy
analysis and comprehension. Chapter one deals with
introduction, theoretical framework, problem statement,
objective of study, hypothesis and significance of study as
well as definition of terms.
In chapter two, thesis of related literature were
reviewed. Items like motivation, elements of an organization,
concept of management, and concept of personnel
management are treated. Also analyzed are motivating
factors for improved staff performance, and finally,
application of motivating factors towards higher
performance of business organizations.
Chapter three dealt with methodology, design, sample
and sampling techniques, population of study, area of
study, instrumentation and instrument for data collection.
Chapter four tackled data presentation and analysis while
chapter five discussed findings. Finally, chapter six makes a
summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were defined in the context of their
relevance to the study.
Motivation: The act of stimulating or causing someone
to behave better than previous performances.
Training: The process of preparing workers for effective
and efficient job performance.
Development: The act or process of improving on the
existing skills of workers for higher performance of jobs.
Job Satisfaction: A feeling of pleasure due to
contentment from conditions of work.
Job Dissatisfaction: A feeling of displeasure due to
discontentment from conditions of work .
Basic Needs: The requirements for clothing, food, and
shelter due to their relevance to life sustenance.
Higher Order Needs: The requirements for esteem, social
belongingness and self actualization which are secondary to
Productivity: Efficiency in creation of goods and services
compared in terms of time, human and materials resources.
Over-reward: Compensation of staff above his input –output
Under-rewards: Compensation of staff below his input –
Equitable Rewards: Compensation of staff in equal ratio of
input –output relations.
Job Input: The contribution of staff service towards
Job Output: The result of the contribution of staff services