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In today‘s world of entertainment, stadium is originally designed to host football matches. When the sports and entertainment venue is on, it has to be fully operational, when there are no events it must be shut down to the safest and most economical operating condition. One of the necessary requirements to promote the good performance of the above mentioned sector is the proper management of the event venue which is the stadium.
According to George R. (1945), Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing actuating and controlling; utilizing in each both science and art, and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objectives.
Stadium management involves any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, directing, controlling, budgeting, leading, and evaluating within the context of an organization or department whose primary product or service is related to stadium or physical activity (DeSensi, Kelley, Blanton and Beitel, 2003).
There are various sectors, facilities and activities that need to be properly manage in the stadium this facilities and activities include; car parking space, allocation of seats, purchasing of tickets, atmosphere of the stadium at an ongoing event, risk assessment, information flow, managing of facilities and so on.
The common practice as already studied involves the spectators coming to the event venue two (2) or three (3) hours before the event commences, to purchase a ticket for the event and when that is achieved the individual gets a parking space as directed by a security personnel if he/she came with a vehicle and walks up to the stand to take a seat of his or her choice.
The above practice flaws the benefits of a good stadium management system as it cannot be able to control overcrowding of onlookers, avoidance of damages on stadium facilities cause by spectators as the struggles for ticket purchasing, giving good account of spectators profile because of lack of information storage facilities and proper documentation for ticket sales.
Due to the flaws of the manual way of managing the stadium, this call for an improvement in the way stadia are being managed and this leads to a shift from manual processing to Computer based processing as supported in the words of Davies D.W. and Barba D.L.A.
Davies D.W (1979) stated that computers have replaced manual technology because of its ability to process large volume of data or even handle complex work (processing capability) at a very high speed. It gives out accurate result at each time except when it is fed with incorrect data, Garbage-in-garbage-out. Hence, the need for computerization is certified.
In Barba D.L.A (1979) in his contribution says that computerization does not only involve computer technology consisting to only hardware and software but also the communication link, that is it establishes the link for data communication devices to interact and share data as well as transferring data/information from one location to another. Besides, computers can be used for keeping records and these records are always available whenever they are needed and the need of carrying office file from one place to another is eliminated and in most cases some documents may get lost or be tampered with on the transmit.
This brings about Computer Based Stadium Information Management System. This system is a web based software application to be designed to manage the activities that occurs in the stadium in other to solve the flaws that was unable to be achieved by manual approach, the system will have a user friendly interface that will be design to accommodate every necessary features using HTML5 AND CSS3 which will make it easier for spectators to purchase their tickets online and avoid overcrowding the stadium gate, the system will also have a database that will be design with MySQL5.0 for storing spectators information and lastly the system will be design with a backend programming language called PHP5.0 which helps in the allocation of seats and car space.
From the background of study the problem observed from the existing management system are as follows:
1. Overcrowding of the stadium gate in order to purchase a ticket.
2. Loss in finance of the management as a result of wasteful left over tickets.
3. A lot of casualties and damage of stadium facilities are encountered as the spectators struggle to purchase a ticket.
4. Lack of spectators information
5. Inadequate information and account of tickets sold.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
The aim of this study is to design an online computer based stadium information management system. In order to achieve the desired aim, the following objectives were considered:
Enable easy purchasing of tickets online from the comfort of your home, office. Etc. in order to control crowd
Provides a method for efficient and effective allocation and reservation of seats for eligible spectators.
Provides a method for efficient allocation and reservation of car parking space.
Manage the information of each match for borderless access and retrieval in order to keep track of each spectators, number of seats occupied for each match and ticket sales.
Computer based Stadium Information Management System which encompasses online ticketing system, seat reservation systems , facility management, information management systems etc. has gone a long way in helping manage stadiums in European countries. For instance Online purchasing of match day ticket employed in a computer based stadium information management system is widely known and have been in use in almost all stadia in developed countries of the world as it has served not only to boost the proposed cashless economy but also ease the stress of queuing up to purchase ticket manually. While the use of online technology to purchase ticket has proved to be successful in places where it has been implemented, it will help to properly manage ticketing in order to avoid too much cost and lost and also ease the work load of the individuals working in the stadium. Also for the case of information management, this system will help provide an accurate data storage and retrieval system for easy manipulation of information‘s needed in the system. This project maximizes the efficiency of this system as well as its throughput with virtually no need for human intervention. Clear advantages of internet information processing over those of traditional manual system are higher yields. Computer based Stadium information management system allows users to fill and purchase their tickets in a faster and more conducive way than queuing for hours in the name of purchasing tickets, it also eradicate the overcrowding issues that normally happen in the formal traditional system. Paul.L.A. (2014) in his book ―The reason for online management‖ noted so many advantages of introducing computer based management systems in all fields of life, he mention some benefits such as; Fast and accurate processing of data, good storage manipulating systems, he also noted that clear and efficient management of resources can be achieved using computerized management systems than normal traditional way of management, he pointed out flaws which the traditional systems created that can be corrected using the computerized system, this flaws includes such things like error in computation , loss of data due to inaccurate and inefficient data storage systems , creation of ambiguous information due to lack of proper data storage systems, etc. He claimed in his book that all these problems can be solved by simply introducing a computer based management systems in such a field.
In-fact the significant study of this research work cannot be neglected or over emphasis as it will go a long way in helping the stadium managers to achieve optimal solution in the following areas:
1. Elimination of overcrowding and queuing system of spectators in order to purchase a ticket for a match.
2. Proper management in ticketing to avoid too much cost and lost
3. Proper allocation and reservation of seats and car parking space to spectators.
4. Ease the work load of staff in the stadium.
5. Give maximum account of the ticket sales information in the stadium.
Stadium management is broad and vast as it encompasses management of car parking space, atmosphere of the stadium at an ongoing event, risk assessment, information flow, and management of facilities and so on, but the scope of this work is based on:
2. Seat allocation and
3. Management of club and match information‘s.
1.6 Limitations of the study
The researcher was limited to the above mentioned scope of study due to some factors such as:
1. Ticketing in stadium management being a new innovation poses the limitation of resources (materials) for this research.
2. Fund: not having a free access to the internet was another constraint.
1.7 Definition of terms
Stadium: a structure that surrounds a central field or a stage in which a spectator event takes place.
Ticket: usually a printed piece of paper or card showing that its holder is an eligible spectator.
Spectators: these are people who look on or watch a spectacle, display or event.
System: an entity which maintains its existence through the interaction of its part.
Reservation: written record or promise of an arrangement by which accommodation are secured in advance.
Computer-based: to control a function, process or creation by a computer.
HTML: html is an acronym for Hypertext Markup Language, use for designing the structure of a webpage.
CSS: css is an acronym for Cascading Style Sheet, a sheet use for styling a webpage or formatting a page.
PHP: php is a recursive acronym that stands for php hypertext preprocessor