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The Project File Details

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A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system of
hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management,
manipulation, analysis, modeling, representation and display of
geo‐referenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning
and management of resources. Functions of GIS include data entry,
data display, data management, information retrieval and analysis.
The applications of GIS include mapping locations, quantities and
densities, finding distances and mapping and monitoring change.
There are mainly three categories of geographic positioning systems
to determine or track a user’s location, which have been designed and
proposed over the years. These systems are mainly three categories:
Global Positioning System, Wide-area Location System and
Indoor Positioning System. Global Positioning System (GPS)
receives signals from multiple satellites to determine the
physical location of a user.

The limitation for this system is that it is inefficient for indoor use;
alongside in urban areas it often possesses difficulties in receiving
signals where high buildings shield the satellite signals.
Wide-area location systems are mainly based on cellular
networks that involve measuring the signal strength, the angle of
signal arrival and/or the time difference of signal arrival. The
positioning information in wide-area location systems is highly
limited by the cell size or cell coverage.
Several approaches have been proposed for indoor location
sensing or indoor positioning system such as infrared sensing, radio
frequency, ultrasonic and scene capture analysis. There are also a few
technologies to use within indoor areas, such as GPS psudo lite,
ultrasonic and cellular-based systems, which need considerable
supporting devices and facilities. Each of these methods has their own
advantages and disadvantages. Some are expensive to implement,
while others are not very accurate. The Active Badge is the first
location system. Radar, well-known approach, is an RF (Radio
Frequency) system for locating and tracking users within large

structures. The approach is an empirical method and a signal
propagation model. This procedure determines user location by
combining signal strength measurements with signal propagation
models. RF signal strength within building is affected by multipath
propagation effects and absorption, resulting in non-linear behavior.
The results show that the empirical method is superior in terms of
accuracy with median resolution in the range of about 3m and the
signal propagation model has 4.3m accuracy (median), but it makes
deployment easier. The applications of indoor positioning are many,
for instance, location-finding, indoor robots, inventory tracking,
security, etc.
Geographic Information (GI) represents information that can be
associated to a location on Earth, information about nature
phenomena, natural, cultural and human resources in general. A GIS
(Geographic Information System) represents an ensemble of
hardware-software for capturing stocking, validating, managing,
analyzing and visualizing data that have a geographic reference.


Application of Remote Sensing and GIS
Function of an Information system is to improve one’s ability to
make decisions. An Information system is a chain of operations
starting from planning the observation and collection of data, to store
and analysis of the data, to the use of the derived information in some
decision making process. A GIS is an information system that is
designed to work with data referenced to spatial or geographic
coordinates. GIS is both a database system with specific capabilities
for spatially referenced data, as well as a set of operation for working
with data. There are three basic types of GIS applications which might
also represent stages of development of a single GIS application.
Inventory Application
Many times the first step in developing a GIS application is
making an inventory of the features for a given geographic area.
These features are represented in GIS as layers or themes of data. The
emphasis at this stage of application development consists of updating
and simple data retrieval.

Analysis Application
Upon completion of the inventory stage, complex queries on
multiple layers can be performed using spatial and spatial analysis

Management Application
More advanced spatial and modeling techniques are required to
support the decisions of managers and policy makers. This involves
shifting of emphasis from basic geographic data handling to
manipulation, analysis and modeling in order to solve real world
Uses of Coastal GIS Packages
1. Retrieval of information of any specific site.
2. Provision of summary data for planning purpose.
3. Graphical display for educational and public relation exercise.
4. Classification of coasts and management zone.

5. Predicting modeling to determine.
A. Projections of coastal changes.
B. Impacts of individual schemes.
C. Impacts from changes of use.
D. Impacts from natural calamities.

1.3 Statement of Problem:
The application of GIS is so enormous that it is only limited to the
mindset of the administrators and users. This project therefore focuses
on the visualization and manipulation of geospatial information to
support decision making in urban development and other areas the
GIS can be applied.
1.4 purpose of study:
The purpose of this project is to support decision making with the use
of geospatial information. With the help of a GIS you will have at
your disposal the necessary instruments to analyze:
The selection and analysis of the location;
The profile, the dividing and the prospecting of the customers;
The potential of new marketing.
Potential crime area
Topology and so on.


1.5 Research Methodology:
Hybrid method (quantitative and qualitative method) as both
literature and text was used, interviews and direct observation of the
subject matter.
1.6 Objective of study:
The main aim of the objective is to design and implement location
retrieval system which will help To provide GIS for geospatial
information visualization To provide goe-data manipulation via a web
interface. Support decision making in urban businesses Support
erosion control, business site
1.7 Significance of study:
To provide the thematic map of the major business areas in the
state capital Awka.
1.8 Scope of the study:
This research work is to design software that will enable
people or strangers in awka to locate places using a map, such
as street, estate, house numbers, schools, police station etc
through the use of location retrieval system using php and data.

1.9 limitations of the study:
1. One of the limitations of the project is time as the
researchers have to combine lectures with other activities
involve in the course to obtain a degree in CARITS
2. The other limitation is literature as the topic is relatively
new not too many materials are readily available for


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