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The Project File Details
This study was carried out to examine the influence of principals’ supervision on teachers’ job performance in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. Seven (7) research questions were raised while five (5) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
The correlational design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of 69 principals and 269 teachers in public junior secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District of Nigeria. The sample consisted of 69 principals and 108 teachers. The questionnaire titled: Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ) and Principals’ Supervisory Function Questionnaire (PSFQ) were used to gather relevant data. Reliability was carried out on the instruments and the reliability coefficient indices were 0.72 and 0.84 respectively. The data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation and the chi-square.
It was revealed from the analysis that Principals in secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District performed 12 supervisory functions and that the level of principal supervisory functions was good. The rating of job performance of teachers was also discovered to be good. The result also showed a significant relationship between principals’ supervision and teachers’ job performance. It was recommended that Principals should improve more in their supervisory functions in secondary schools to ensure continuous growth and attainment of school goals.
COVER PAGE — — — — — — — — — I
TITLE PAGE — — — — — — — — — II
CERTIFICATION — — — — — — — — — III
DEDICATION — — — — — — — — — IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS — — — — — — — V
LIST OF TABLES — — — — — — — — IX
ABSTRACT — — — — — — — — — X
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION — — — — — 1
Background to the Study — — — — — — — — 1
Statement of the Problem — — — — — — — — 5
Research Questions — — — — — — — — 6
Hypotheses — — — — — — — — — — — — 7
Purpose of the Study — — — — — — — — 8
Significance of the Study — — — — — — — — 9
Scope of the Study — — — — — — — — — 11
Operational Definition of Terms — — — — — — 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE– — 13
Theoretical Framework– — — — — — — — — 13
Concept and Level of Teachers’ Job Performance– — — — — 15
Supervisory Function and Rating of Principals’ Performance of
their Supervisory Functions — — — — — — — — 23
Principals’ Supervision and Teachers’ Job Performance — — — 32
Summary of Literature Reviewed– — — — — — — 38
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF STUDY — — — — 39
Research Design — — — — — — — — — 39
Population of the Study — — — — — — — —- 39
Sample and Sampling Technique — — — — — — 40
Instrument of the Study — — — — — — — — 41
Validity of the Instrument — — — — — — — 42
Reliability of the Instrument — — — — — — — — 42
Administration of the Instrument — — — — — — 42
Method of Data Analysis — — — — — — — — 43
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION — — — — — — 45
Results– — — — — — — — — — — — 45
Discussion — — — — — — — — — — — — 53
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS — — — — — — — — 62
Summary — — — — — — — — — — — 62
Conclusion — — — — — — — — — — 63
Recommendations — — — — — — — — — 64
Implications for Educational Management — — — — — 65
Contributions to Knowledge — — — — — — — — 66
Suggestion for Further Study — — — — — — — 66
REFERENCES — — — — — — — — — 67
Appendix I: Questionnaire for Teachers– — — — — — 72
Appendix II: Questionnaire for Principls — — — — — 75
Appendix II: Statistical Analysis — — — — — — 78
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Population and sample of the study — — — — — 40
Table 2: Performance of principals’ supervisory functions in secondary
schools in Edo Central Senatorial District — — — — — 45
Table 3: Level of job performance of teachers in secondary schools in
Edo Central Senatorial District — — — — — — — 48
Table 4: Relationship between Principals’ Supervisory functions and
teachers’ job performance — — — — — – — 50
Table 5: Relationship between Principals’ Supervision and
Teachers’ preparation of lesson plan/notes — — — — 50
Table 6: Relationship between Principals’ supervision and teachers’
lesson presentation — — — — — — — — — 51
Table 7: Relationship between Principals’ supervision and teachers’
punctuality to classroom — — — — — — — — 52
Table 8: Relationship between Principals’ supervision and teachers’ record keeping — — — — — — — — — — 53
Background to the Study
The importance of instructional supervisory role in the job performance of secondary school principals in the educational system cannot be overemphasized. The principal as a leader of a group of teachers has the function of overseeing the teachers in order to improve the learning and teaching process in the school system. Instructional supervision is one of the processes by which school administrators attempt to achieve acceptable standards of performance and results. It is a tool of quality control in the school system and a phase of school administration which focuses primarily on the achievement of appropriate expectation of educational goals (Peretomode, 2004). The achievement of educational goals becomes the real essence for carrying out supervision in schools by school heads because of the importance of education to national development.
The role of principals is to facilitate the implementation of the various learning programmes aimed at improving the learning outcomes. Teachers whether new or old on the job need necessary support in the performance of their instructional duties. Hence, principals as school heads, need to provide this support to teachers, they need to be involved in the implementation of instructional programmes by overseeing what teachers do with the students.
The principal as a supervisor oversees the activities of teachers and other workers in the school to ensure that they conform with the generally accepted principles and practice of education. In the school system, the principal holds a key position in instructional improvement through supervision of instruction. The principal provides professional guidance to teachers in order to improve instruction and enhance professional growth of teachers. The supervisory role of principals cover areas such as preparation of lesson plans and lesson notes, use of instructional methods and teaching aids, keeping and maintaining of school records, development of curriculum materials, class registers, diaries and teaching aids and offer of professional advice for their improvement.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) states that to ensure quality control in the schools, it is necessary to have good teachers and supervisors. The primary responsibility of the supervisors is to see that high standards are maintained and that schools are operated in accordance with the laid down regulations. The Ministry of Education and the State Post Primary Education Board appoint principals to improve and maintain standard in the schools through the performance of their supervisory functions. Peretomode (2004) listed the following as the purpose of instructional supervision in schools: to directly influence the behaviour of teachers and the teaching processes employed to promote student learning, to ensure that each teacher within the school system is performing the duties for which he is scheduled, to cooperatively develop favourable climate for effective teaching and learning.
Instructional supervision is a tool for helping teachers’ professional growth. The techniques of instructional supervision have been described by Onoyase (2007) as modern strategy of supervision which can be employed by supervisors to help teachers improve on the job and also facilitate effective instruction in schools. According to Onoyase (2007), the techniques should include classroom visitation, interschool visitation, micro- teaching and workshops.
The principal is an instructional supervisor in his institution. The way people see him in the course of discharging his duties and functions has given rise to a variety of names and titles with which he is labeled. He is seen as a director, leader, instructional supervisor, adviser, public relation officer, curriculum director, chief education officer and policy maker, among others. These titles reflect the place and role of secondary school principals in ensuring teachers’ effectiveness in the instructional process.
Dunkin (1997) defined job effectiveness of a worker as the extent to which a worker possesses the requisite knowledge and skills, and teachers’ effectiveness as the way a teacher behaves in the process of carrying out his/her duties. Papanastasiou (1999) stated “that no single attribute or characteristic is adequate to define an effective worker”. To him, job effectiveness can only be described as the extent to which a worker fulfils his/her obligations based on their job description in the realization of the goals of the organisation. Principals’ performance of their supervisory functions could go a long way in enhancing the job performance of the teacher, which invariably may help in the realization of the goals of the educational system. Monitoring the teaching-learning process in the school by the principal may help to ensure that teachers do the right thing and improve their job performance.
Teachers’ job performance is the ability of the teacher to combine relevant inputs for the enhancement of the teaching and learning processes (Adeyemi, 2010). Principals can therefore encourage performance of their teachers by identifying their needs and trying to satisfy or meet them. Performance is the ability to combine skillfully the right attitude towards the achievement of educational objectives and goals. Owoeye (1999) asserted that variables of job performance such as effective teaching, lesson note preparation, use of scheme of work, effective supervision, monitoring of students’ work and disciplinary ability are virtues which teachers should uphold in the school system. In this regard, teachers’ performance could be measured through annual performance/evaluation report on staff. The report measures teachers’ activities in terms of performance in teaching, lesson preparation, lesson presentation, mastery of subject matter, competence, teachers’ commitment to job and extra-curricular activities. Thus, principals’ performance of their supervisory functions may be an important ingredient in improving the job performance of teachers.
Statement of the Problem
The job performance of teachers has been observed to be on the decline over the years by stakeholders in the education industry. Concerned citizens, government officials, non-governmental organizations and voluntary agencies have openly lamented the decline in the standard of education provided in the country. This is manifested in the poor academic performance of students, especially in external examinations, examination malpractice, indecent dressing, moral decadence and general indiscipline among students.
Researchers and stakeholders in the education industry have in the recent past identified several factors as the causes of poor performance of students in public examinations. Among such factors are low job performance of teachers, teachers’ non- commitment to duty, poor supervisory role performance of school heads, location of the school, incessant changes in government policies, irregular school calendar, (which is contingent upon teachers’ incessant strike action), high student-teacher ratio, poor inspection by education management agencies, poor content and context of instruction, poor and non conducive learning environment, among others (Adeboyeje, Olaniyi & Adepoju, 2003).
Poor supervision of teachers by school heads has been observed to be one of the problems responsible for teachers’ poor job performance (Asiyai, 2009). There are complaints from the public that teachers are not performing their job as they ought to (Oyewole & Alonge, 2013). The general complaint is that many teachers seemed to have abandoned their primary responsibility of teaching by engaging in other businesses in schools such as buying and selling of wares.
The decline in the job performance of teachers appears to be closely linked to the non-commitment of principals to the performance of their supervisory functions. Eze (2006) in his study revealed that principals have little or no time to practice demonstration teaching and to render other supervisory services for instructional improvement. Effiong (2006) also reported that principals had a high and positive perception of instructional supervision but that their performance of instructional supervision was not above average. It is against this backdrop that this study investigated the link between principals’ supervisory role performance and the job performance of the teachers in secondary school in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria.
The following research questions were raised to guide this study:
The hypotheses formulated for the study were:
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of principals’ supervision on teachers’ job performance in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:
Significance of the Study
This study would be of benefit to principals, teachers, external supervisors from governmental agencies like the Federal or State Ministries of Education, secondary school students and prospective researchers in Edo State. To principals, the study would help them to identify the supervisory functions undertaken by principals and their level of performance of these supervisory functions in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Edo state.
The study would also help teachers to know the areas that principals supervise during or after lesson presentation. This would serve as a check on teachers and sensitize them towards improving on their lesson presentation in class.
To external supervisors from governmental agencies like the Federal or State Ministries of Education, the study would help them to know the level of job performance of secondary school teachers in Edo Central Senatorial District and the relationship of principals’ supervision on teachers’ job performance in Edo Central Senatorial District. This could help them in the area of improving on the supervisory framework of the ministry in ensuring that quality assurance in the secondary education of Edo State schools is maintained.
Finally, the findings from this study would also help students to know the supervisory roles performed by principals that could affect their teachers’ class instruction and hinder their learning outcome as students. The study would contribute to knowledge relating to principals’ supervision and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools and this, could lead to the production of more empirical data for the benefit of prospective researchers to undertake further studies in future.
Scope of the Study
The study covered principals’ supervision as determinant of teachers’ job performance in public junior secondary schools in Edo Central Senatorial District. The study determined principals’ supervisory functions of teachers’ lesson plans/notes, instructional aids, scheme of work, examination invigilation, lesson presentation, teachers’ registers/diaries, classroom management, punctuality to classroom and students’ report sheet among others. It also covered variables such as level of job performance of teachers and the relationship between principals’ supervision and job performance of teachers in preparation of lesson plan/note, lesson presentation, punctuality and record keeping in school.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined as used in this study:
Supervisory Function: The supervisory function covers the job performed by principals in the supervision of teachers’ lesson plans/notes, instructional aids, scheme of work, examination invigilation, lesson presentation, teachers’ registers/diaries, classroom management, punctuality to classroom and students’ report sheet among others.
Rating of Principals’ Supervisory Performance: This is the rating of a principals’ supervisory role on the basis of how frequently they engage themselves on supervisory functions as rated by the teachers. The level of supervisory functions or performance of principals is operationally divided into three points as good, fair and poor.
Rating of Teachers’ Job Performance: Teachers’ job performance refers to the measure of output and quality of service delivery by teachers in the performance of his/her instructional and administrative duties in a given time period as rated by the principals. The level of job performance of teachers is rated as very good, good, fair and poor.
Teacher Job Performance: This is concerned with the performance of secondary school teachers in their task of teaching which covers lesson note preparation, lesson presentation, punctuality to school and keeping of students’ record.