The Project File Details
This project was carried out to assess the roles of parent- Teacher Association on the teaching and learning in primary schools. Some primary schools were selected in Ojo Local Government Area which was used as the sample for the study, consisted of three private and public schools respectively. Hundred Questionnaires were shared for both the parents and pupils of the selected schools which were used as the sample to the study. Four research questions were tested and from the results obtained, the researcher was able to discover that there was a significant impact of the parent-teacher Association in achieving the goals of primary schools. The association has also helped tremendously in providing the necessary materials needed for the schools including fund which has contributed to the performance of the pupils in their examination.
Table of content viii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significant of the study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study 7
1.9 Definition of Terms 7
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 History of Education in Nigeria 14
2.2 Primary Education System in Nigeria 17
2.3 Management and Control of Primary Education 20
2.3.1 Current State of Primary Education (Structure of
Primary Education) 22
2.4 Parent- Teacher Associations in the School System 24
2.5 Roles of Parent-Teacher Association in School Management 25
2.6 Roles of PTA in Teaching and Learning Process 27
2.7 Benefits of Parent- Teacher Association 34
2.7.1 The Benefits of PTA to the Pupils 34
2.7.2 Benefits of PTA to the parents/ Guardian 38
2.7.3 Benefits of PTA to the Teachers 39
2.7.4 Benefits of PTA to Schools 39
2.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 45
2.8.1 Advantages of Parent Teacher Association 46
2.8.2 Disadvantages of Parent Teacher Association 46
3.1 Research Methodology 48
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 Population of the Study 49
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 49
3.5 The Research Instrument 50
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 51
3.7 Administration of the Questionnaire 51
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis 51
4.0 Data Analysis 52
4.1 Research Question one 52
4.2 Research Question Two 56
4.3 Research Question Three 59
4.4 Research Question Four 63
5.1 Summary 67
5.2 Conclusion 68
5.3 Recommendations 69
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Parent involvement is a salient predictor of students’ success (Million,
2003). In fact, many researchers suggest that parent involvement positively impacts students’ achievement, attendance, attitudes, behavior, graduation, and life goals (Burke, 2001 and Belenardo, 2001). There is also much evidence that these benefits cross lines of family income and parent education level. In an era characterized by tremendous emphasis on school accountability as measured by students’ performance, education reform measures are replete with components that address parent involvement (Belenardo, 2001).
The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been rigorously advocated in Nigeria in recent years, which aims at the promotion of parent involvement to enhance the educational outcomes of students. The number of PTAs has been increasing drastically.
Parents Teachers Association can be identified as very important variable that have potential for promoting directly or indirectly student academic achievements (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008). Looking at the quality of products that Nigeria’s secondary schools turn out, it appears the quality of education received by the students is low in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor development there-by making the secondary school system ineffective.
Omoregie (2006) lamented that the primary education which is the pivot of the entire educational system in Nigeria is fast loosing relevance, as it is not fulfilling the national objectives as set down in the National Policy of Education. The academic performance of primary school pupils could be attributed to several factors but this study is restricted to the role of parents teachers’ association as a potential factor . It has been noticed in some areas, that school headmasters/headmistress do not involve the parents in the administration of the schools for fear of being criticized. It appears in some cases, parents are no longer allowed to participate in school programmes and parents are no longer allowed to visit their children in school regularly to see how they fare.
There are instances where some principals no longer make use of the Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) in schools administration. All these tend to make the parents handicapped in assisting the school in the provision of qualitative education to its students .
According to Cotton and Wikelund (2001), many benefits are accrued for the school and for parents themselves when parents become involved in their children’s school activities. They maintained that, school personnel benefit from the improved rapport that generally accompanies increased parents’ involvement. This rapport is often expressed in parents’ increased willingness to support school with their labour and resources during fund-raising activities or special projects.
Besides, Henderson (1987), Hicks and Sammons (1992) and Hillman and Mortimore (1995) had showed in their various studies that parental presence in the school activities and participation in committees’ events and other activities all had positive effects on achievement.
Adewuyi (2002) also submitted that active parent involvement and positive home-school-community relations have been shown to positively influence effective schooling and students’ achievement.
Ajayi (1999) also posited that, effective administration of schools could be hampered where the PTA is not performing its roles as expected. Also, Ajayi (2007) posited that, the school and the community are interdependent and interrelated and for the relationship between them to be meaningful, worthwhile and productive, they must be willing to assist each other to achieve their respective goals in atmosphere of love, mutual trust and cooperation.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
As educators struggle to identify and maximize the use of every resource to improve students’ performance, it is increasingly important that they establish and maintain high levels of parent involvement in their schools. Although parent involvement at the elementary-school level has been studied extensively, more research is needed “to determine why there is a decrease of involvement as the child advances to higher grades” (Smith,2001, p. 149)
The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of the factors that significantly affect the level of parent involvement during the middle-school years.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purposes of this study are:
achieving its goals.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1) There is a significant difference between the perceptions of parents and teachers in terms of the involvement of PTA in achieving school goals.
2) There is a significant effect on the parent involvement in the academic processes and their performance in primary schools.
3) There are significant factors which have been perceived to promote or inhibit parents’ involvement in the academic progress of pupils in primary school.
4) There is a significant relationship in parents’ involvement in the school administration and it effect on the development of primary school pupils.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help Parents Teachers Association in achieving its school goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their own PTAs, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.
In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the rationales and goals set by their own PTAs.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses on the role of Parents Teachers Association in the development of primary school pupils in some selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This research work covers all public primary schools students in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, four public primary schools will be used as case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Apart from time-frame and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole Public primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area Of Lagos State as the title suggest.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS