The Project File Details
This is a survey research designed to investigate the factors responsible, for drug abuse in Maiduguri metropolis, in Borno State. To this end, three objectives and three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The three objectives were spelt out as follows:- (a) To identify he drugs that are commonly abused and factors associated with such drugs abuse. (b) To determine gender differences in relation to drug abuse among secondary schools students. (c) To find out whether guidance services are provided. And the four research questions were: (a) what are the drugs commonly abuse by secondary school students (b) is there gender difference among secondary school students on drug abuse (c) is there any form of guidance services provided on drug abuse in secondary schools. The population of the study comprises of all secondary school in Maiduguri using purposive sampling about eight (8) secondary schools were selected. About 160 teachers were used as respondent. The study used self-developed questionnaire as instrument comprising of dichotomous and like scale items. Descriptive statistic was used to analyses the data and the results revealed, that most commonly abused drugs include tobacco, alcohol, valium, marijuana e.t.c Also there is no gender difference on drug abuse among secondary school students, in addition guidance services are not provided in secondary schools. The study recommends that school authorities should sensitize students on dangers of drug abuse more often in addition to National Drugs Law Enforcement Agency (N.D.L.E.A) and National Agency for Food Drug Administrative and Control (NAFDAC) campaign on such cases. School authorities and agencies saddle with drugs control should be sensitive on gender when it comes to campaign on drug abuse. Ministry of education, should engage services of experience drug abuse and other social vices.
Page – – – – – – – – – – – -i
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – – -iv
Table of Content – – – – – – – – – -v
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – -viii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – -ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – -7
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – – – – -7
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – – -8
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – -8
1.6 Scope and Limitation – – – – – – – -9
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Frame Work – – – – – – – 11
2.2 Drugs Commonly Abused by Secondary School Students – 14
2.3 Gender Difference on Drug Abuse – – – – – 19
2.4 Guidance Service and Drug Abuse – – – – – 22
2.5 Summary of the Literature Review and Uniqueness of the
Study – – – – – – – – – – – 25
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 28
3.2 Population and Sampling- – – – – – – 29
3.3 Research Instrument – – – – – – – 30
3.4 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 30
3.5 Method of Data Analysis- – – – – – – 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Analysis and Result – – – – – – – 33
4.2 Summary of Finding – – – – – – – – 41
4.3 Discussion – – – – – – – – – 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – 44
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 44
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 45
References- – – – – – – – – – 46
1.1 Background of the Study
A drug can be define as any chemical solid liquid or
amorphous substance drive form plants; animals or mineral
resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some
desirable effects. To a drug also defined drug as a substance which
by its chemical nature has an effect to open body of higher nervous
system (the mind) the effect of drug could be positive or negative.
The concept “Drug” is as old as man himself. Many
authorities or scholars form various fields of study for example,
sociology, medicine, guidance counselling, psychology, pharmacy,
religion and over have written and commence on drug use and
abuse. The view sore however, not far being Eimiker for example
Aboyemi (1960) traces country of drugs such drugs were derived
from plants barks, fruits, roots and overs were taken purposely,
for stomachache, headache, wound and other pain and disease.
Commenting on use of drugs, Ayele (1993) complementing, Ojo
Omo (1988) says that “Drugs are natural and chemical substances
used for treatment, curing and preventing of sickness and disease
as well as management of abnormal situation in man. Akindele
(1974) and Olutunde (1996) see drugs as: A natural substance
used in retuning what has been lodt from the human body. The
change may be better or worse. They are administered to enhance,
activate, or improve the activities and finances of umna body”.
Drug when properly used or taking into a living organism,
produces result and may modify one or more of its functional parts
it is usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Such drugs or
substances are either of vegetables, animals or mineral origin.
They could be prepared for the human body that produce the
desired, results into the treatment of disease and achievement. The
negative effect of drug is also referred to as drug abuse. Drug abuse
is therefore defined as the excessive consumption of a drug by any
individual. Drug abuse results when there is self-injection or from
the approved medical in a manner that deviates from the approved
medical usage. Drug abuse is involved in the following:
1. Excessive use of drugs and use of un-prescribed drugs.
2. Use of hard drugs.
Excessive use of drugs ad use of prescribed drugs. This is when
an individual takes in rugs without following the current
prescription of the doctors. Use of hard drugs are capable of
affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or
estimating the central nervures system or producing other
biochemical harm to the society at large.
According to Agwusike (2013) drug abuse is the use of drugs
above the prescribed dosage and for the purpose other than for the
original prescription. To Adi drug abuse as self-treatment of
physical aliment which could result from ignorance. The society of
doctors and pharmacists for when at the uncontrollable ways and
manners in which the drugs are contributory factors to drug
abuse. Uncivilized, and developed nations, drugs other than those
for commons, cough and cold remedies are sold in a doctor’s
prescription. Drug abuse could be viewed from different
perspectives depending on the focus under view. It could be
described as a non-medical use of drug, which may cause harm to
the individual and society. These could be dugs which do not
conform to the society’s cultural norm of a society. People generally
misuse or abuse drugs because the substance after the mode of
behavior of an individual. Over the years the use of hard drugs like
Tabaco, sedatives, Indian hemp, cocoa leaves, alcohol, heroine,
morphine, cocaine to mention but a few have drastically been on
the increase especially in this part of the world (Africa). The
dependence or addition, which is psychological is characterized by
the compulsion to take drugs on a continuous or periodic basis in
order to experience, its mental effect.
The history of drug abuse could also be traced to the urge of
man wanting to have power to relieve tension, satisfy his needs
obtained occasional release from problems and the need to find a
cure to some aliments, all these have contributed to drug use and
abuse. The use of drug by man is as old as man himself. Man
consumed the juices of opium poppies long before there were
narcotics such as morphine and heroine. Man chewed cocoa leaf
long before cocaine was extracted from American cocoa plants.
Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of
lack of dosage to determine the quantity, required by the users.
The expiration period is never stated, substances that are today
referred to as drugs originated from herbs and other natural
chemical caffeine, which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and
nicotine as in Tabaco or cigarette, is widely used as mind stimulant
and tension relieving drugs. They are considered socially
acceptable and used recreationally.
However, they produce dependence and are also known to
cause harm. Other drugs although are used medically for the
treatment of one ailment or the other, may also cause problems for
the individual. Examples of such drugs are psychoactive drugs or
sedatives like valium and magadon, which are sleeping pills and
pain killers which are medically prescribed but may be abuse thus
causing dependence and harm.
Drug can be classified into the following:
i. Stimulants such as tobacco cocaine or coffee.
ii. Depressant such as alcohol and other substance of
depressants, such as a heroine, morphine and opiates.
STIMULANTS:- This kind of drug stimulates the nervous system
of an individual to behave extraordinarily leading such individual
to misbehave. The health implication is that the individual is
acting on the influence of a cultivating factor such as tobacco,
cocaine e.t.c. common incident that happens around us today is
on the influence of these stimulants and if care is not taken, could
lead to mental disorder.
DEPRESSANTS:- These are sleep inducing drug. They are
used to calm anxious and restless subjects. These are barbiturates
and non-barbiturates that are capable of producing some degree
of depression of the central nervous system. CNS). They are the
most dangerous drugs.
HALLUCINOGENS:- These are substances that produce, a
state of altered perception and other alteration of mood such as
illusion, hallucination, Example of these drugs are lysergic acid
diethyl lamine (LSD) phylagibin (extracted from innobrowi)
magaline. Drug abuse has caused great problem to humanity. A
lot of damages have been done to human health as a result of drug
use and abuse and these damages could be mental, physical,
emotional and psychological so that it has in a long way reduce life
span of man. There are also social problem associated, with drug
use and abuse. They include high rate of crime, deformity either
physically or mentally and affect unborn, children whose mothers
abuse drugs when they are pregnant.
The role of guidance and counselling include the following:
i. To provide students with a service which directly supports
and compliments the work of the classroom teachers.
ii. To liaise with administrators and teachers about
performance, of student and the implementation of
programme geared toward helping students with
educational, vocational, personal and social problems.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the present problem of secondary school in Maiduguri
metropolis is the abuse of drug, a drug free child is the pride of his
parents. Today drug abuse is common among adolescents which
include students of various secondary schools. Such students are
introduced, to drugs by their friends by increased availability, of
psychoactive drugs in the country and by apparent, willingness of
need to try drugs and use them as a solution to one’s daily
problem. It is against this background that this research intent to
find out the following:
i. How do the students get to know about drugs?
ii. How effective has been the word of the guidance and
counseling on drugs abuse.
iii. Which among the drugs is commonly abused.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The researcher aimed at achieving the following objectives,
i. To identify the drugs that are commonly abused and
factors associated with such drugs abuse.
ii. To determine there is gender differences in relation to drug
abuse among secondary school students.
iii. To find out whether guidance services are adequately
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of carrying out this research work, the research
will attempt to proper solutions to the following questions:
1. What are the drugs commonly abuse by secondary school
2. Is there gender difference on drug abuse among secondary
3. Is there any form of guidance services provided on drug
abuse in secondary school?
1.5 Significance of the Study
If one takes into consideration the increasing population of
drugs abusers among secondary schools one could anticipate that
in the near further everybody will become a victim. The research
study related to theory, knowledge and policy. It with therefor
enable teachers parent and other to know about antisocial,
behavior of students and find out means of controlling such
This research is intended to help produce relevant solution
on how to tackle these problems by focusing on the causes of the
drugs abuses and how far it has been brought under control by
guidance and counseling, rather than the administration of
punishment on drug abusers.
The study is to enable the students to be sensitive, and
awaken them to desist from joining their peer group in this
undesirable act. At the end of the study a copy of this work will be
kept in the library for any students that come across it to enable
him/her to realize the dangers of indulging in drug abuse.
The research is going to be the source of help to parent’s
government and society at large because it aimed, at reflecting the
reality of drug abuse in our secondary schools and its effects on
our youths and on the further of our nation. It also aimed on how
it can be effectively, reduce in our secondary school.
1.6 Scope and Limitation
The study will cover some selected secondary schools in
Maiduguri metropolis council of Borno state. It will however be
limited to specific drugs of dependency such as depressant drugs
stimulant and hallucinogen e.t.c.
The following are the selected secondary schools, in
Maiduguri metropolis which the study will cover:
a. Federal Government College Maiduguri (FGC)
b. Government College Maiduguri (GCM)
c. Government Girls College Maiduguri (GGC)
d. Government Day Secondary School (GDSS)
e. Brigadier Spring Secondary School (BSC)
f. Himma Private Secondary School Maiduguri (HPSS)
g. Maiduguri International Secondary School (MISS)
h. Success Private Secondary School Maiduguri (SPSS)
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Drugs: any substance that can affect the activity, of the body.
Drugs Abuse: means taking of a drugs without doctor’s
prescription or advice.
Drugs Abuser: as someone who is abusing drug that if he/she uses
drugs continually in an abnormal way.