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The Project File Details
Social Studies is a core subject offered in the junior secondary schools and tertiary institutions in the education system. And its aims cannot be achieved without the use of instructional materials, owing to the challenge of using instructional materials, which need to be tackled for the achievement of the aims. Therefore, this research work is designed to assess the problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies in junior secondary schools, in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. Findings obtained from the analysis of the data collected; show that the problems of using instructional materials are the shortage of materials, laziness amongst the teachers, lack of fund for the purchase of instructional materials, and time. It was also observed that the performance of the student has a lot to do with the use of instructional materials during classes. Recommendations were based on the findings. And if this is well implemented, it will go a long way in solving the said problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of social studies for the growth and achievement of the objectives of the subject and the development of the country at large.
Title page———————————————————————————– i
Table of contents————————————————————————vii
List of tables——————————————————————————-x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study—————————————————————-1
Statement of the problem————————————————————–9
Purpose of the study——————————————————————-10
Significance of the study————————————————————–11
Scope of the study———————————————————————-12
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The concept of Social studies——————————————————-14
Conceptual framework of instructional materials used in the teaching of
Instructional materials used in the teaching of Social studies—————20
Characteristics of instructional materials—————————————–25
Availability of instructional materials in junior secondary schools———-26
Problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies
in Junior secondary schools———————————————————28
Review of Related Empirical Studies———————————————-31
Summary of Reviewed Literature—————————————————33
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Area of study—————————————————————————–36
Population of the study—————————————————————-37
Sample and sampling Techniques————————————————-37
Instrument for Data Collection——————————————————-38
Validation of the instrument———————————————————-38
Method of Data Collection————————————————————39
Method of data Analysis————————————————————–39
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS, SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY.
Discussion of the Findings———————————————————–47
Summary of the study—————————————————————–49
Limitations of the study—————————————————————-55
Suggestions for further study——————————————————–55
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: List of the secondary schools used for the study——————-38
Table 2: Mean scores of the instructional materials used in teaching
Table 3: Mean scores of the most widely utilized instructional materials by
Classroom teachers in the teaching Social studies—————-43
Table 4: Mean scores of the different problems of using instructional
Materials in the teaching of Social studies—————————44
Table 5: Mean scores of the remedies of the problems of using instructional Materials————————-45
Background to the Study
Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of stimulation such as the use of instructional materials like; Education radio, charts, chalkboards, maps, film strips and realia materials. Adekunle (2008) noted that teaching resources in Social studies means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more sense than one, they can learn faster. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that will have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic. Larson (2001) quoted Lane who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face- to-face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher –to student- centered classes. In this situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of an instructional material does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students.
Ikerionwu (2000) referred to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Social studies is a subject that depends in the use of a number of resources. Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful social studies teaching and learning situation.
The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials present support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over head projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, film strips, maps, charts, graphs, offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences. Other investigators including Jimoh (2009), Yeager (2000), Nwanyanwu (1999), Bozimo (2002) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of social studies lessons in secondary schools.
Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these estimable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials and resources in social studies teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garuba (2003), the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning are seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set- up. And even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.
A resourceful instruction needs to give all students the opportunity to group the content taught at a time. The production of well –informed citizen who will be useful to their respective local communities and nations is the ultimate goal of Social studies. For instance, Barr, Barth, Shermis (1977) considered social studies to be the integration of experience and knowledge concerning human relations for the purpose of citizenship education. Savage and Armstrong (2004) also stated that citizenship is a key element and a major justification for Social Studies education, so it is expected that a good citizenship education programme will produce young people who will leave school with a disposition to become actively involved in public affairs and contribute fundamentally to social progress.
Howe and Marshall (1999) also stated that Social studies is the only subject area which has citizenship education as its primary concern. Their main argument is that social studies is one of the few subject areas which has an explicit objective and focus on the development of interpersonal skills needed of a citizen in a democratic society.
Parker (2000) noted that the Social studies teacher has a responsibility to include controversial issues and current events in curriculum. Parker believes that students need to study issues on which there are some disagreement so as to practice analyzing problems; gathering and organizing facts; discriminating between facts and opinions; discussing differing viewpoints and drawing tentative conclusions. DuBey (2009) said that exposing students to controversial issues in their studies enables them to develop the capacity for ethical and moral reasoning so that they become critically reflective thinkers. The social studies classroom should therefore focus on using instructional materials which will help more students into developing a democratic character.
Servey (1981) revealed that teachers do not use instructional materials that cater for different learning abilities of learners. Servey followed and observed a single school for a period of a year to find out if they used productive instructional materials for teaching Social Studies. The findings show that instructional materials used by teacher did not meet learners’ needs in terms of their level of skills. No two individuals learn exactly the same way; the most appropriate means to learning appears to be highly individualistic and is directly related to the type of learning desired. Moreover, Jarolimek (1977) found out that teachers, more especially at the elementary level continue to struggle with the problem of providing adequately for the diverse interests, talents, and abilities known to exist between and among members of the class groups.
Unfortunately, despite the role of instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies, the high rate of poor performance of students in Social studies examination, in both their internal and external examinations is quite alarming. For instance, it is on record that out of five thousand students that took Social Studies examination, in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra state, only one thousand seven hundred and sixty students were able to make credits in their 2011 Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (ANSEB, 2011). Also in 2012, seven thousand students enrolled for Social Studies examination, and only two thousand five hundred and sixty seven students were able to make credit and above in the Examination (ANSEB, 2012).
The above recorded failure can be attributed to the lack of instructional materials used in the teaching of Social studies in the junior secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. Instructional materials are very important in the teaching of Social studies; this is because with the use, of instructional materials, the students will be motivated in the studying of Social Studies. These instructional materials could be of different forms which include; audio tape recorders, videotape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, maps, film strips, charts, graphs, programmed instruction and many more. All these materials aid teaching and learning.
“In every school, whether at the primary, secondary or tertiary levels of education there are instructional materials that make it possible for schools to attain there desired goals, and when this instructional materials are not used as expected during lessons, due to the problems encountered during the use of instructional materials, the objectives will not be achieved” (Odo, 2001:187).
These instructional materials are always limited and scarce, for the teaching of Social studies, and this necessitates problems for the achievement of the set objectives of the subject, which cannot be achieved if the problems continues to linger, without been solved. Therefore, these problems of using instructional materials, such as the lack of fund, inadequate time for the use of instructional materials, lack of knowledge on the side of the teacher on how to operate the available instructional materials, should be tackled to the core, in order to inculcate in the students, the expected knowledge, about Social studies. (Odo, 2001).
The researcher is therefore conducting this research work as to finding the causes of the problems of using instructional materials, and the problems of using instructional materials, so as to enhance the students’ understanding during lessons.
Good teachers have aims for teaching, they lead and guide their students and do not do the work for them. A teacher from Maitlamo who had a pronounced teaching philosophy said: “Social Studies is not easy to teach as people think. I use child – centered methods and lots of instructional materials to help students understand the content better. This helps them retain information learnt and be able to recall during tests and examinations”. (Zevin, 2007:23).
Statement of the Problem
The major goal of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in junior secondary schools is to educate students to be able to confront problematic situations in the subject with confidence. In other words, Social studies is supposed to teach students to become functional problem – solving students.
In order to make Social Studies teaching and learning meaningful and interesting, teachers need to employ a variety of instructional materials and teaching methods which Adeyemi (2000) states that they are indispensable for the study of Social Studies. He believes that the most appropriate learning takes place when the learner is in control and dominating session in the teaching –learning process.
The variety of instructional materials and methods used in the teaching of social studies are not fully utilized and appropriately used, and these makes the teaching of Social Studies difficult and hard for the students to understand. When the available instructional materials are not properly utilized and well managed, they pose a lot of problem to the teaching of Social Studies. “The problems of using instructional materials, such as the lack of fund, inadequate time for the use of instructional materials, lack of knowledge on the side of the teacher on how to operate the available instructional materials, should be tackled to the core, in order to inculcate in the students, the expected knowledge, about Social studies”. (Odo, 2001:188).
In view of the above, it is important to study the problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social Studies in junior secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out the problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies in junior secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra state. Specifically, the study is designed to:-
Significance of the Study
The result of this research project will reveal to the teachers, students, and the government about the problems of using instructional materials. It will as well be of great significance owing to its quality and contribution.
The result of this research will also guide Social studies teachers to effectively and efficiently use instructional materials and to know the causes of the problems of using these materials.
When these problems are tackled, it will help to stimulate the students’ mind and make them spirited, hence showing positive interest towards teaching and learning, if the materials are efficiently used.
Similarly, the result shall contribute as a source of material to researchers, educational administrators, and stakeholders and curriculum planners to update their knowledge of the causes and problems of using instructional materials.
The result of the study will also enlighten the teachers about the different problems encountered during the use of instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning of social studies.
The result of the study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who would wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the topic.
Scope of the Study
There are many junior secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State.
The scope of the study is limited to seven (7) secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra state which were randomly selected. The scope of the study is on the problems of using instructional materials in the teaching of Social studies in junior secondary schools in Dunukofia Local Government Area of Anambra State. The schools of study had to be selected for a proper and a good research work.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study: