The Project File Details
The study was to determine the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching and learning in junior secondary schools in Enugu educational zone. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. the population of study comprised 82 teachers in the urban and rural areas of the education zone. . The sample size for the study are 82 teacchers. 68 teachers from the urban area while 14 teachers from the rural area. A structured questionnaire title computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching and learning (CSNBSTETL) was designed and used as instrument for data collection. The instrument was face validated by three experts, from Peaceland college of Education, Enugu. The instrument used was further subjected to a reliability test using Cronbach Alpha statistics. The analysis of the data revealed internal consistencies of 0.97. The data collected using the instrument were collated and analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation. Based on the analysis of the findings, it was revealed that, the computer skills needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation are classifying data into groups, connection of basic computer component, use of word processing packages, download files and sending and accessing electronic documents, the computer skills needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation are classifying data into groups, connection of basic computer component, use word processing packages, download files and sending and accessing electronic documents. The computer skills needed by business studies teachers in data processing are classifying data into groups, sort data into sequence, create a record and move from record to record, use available data processing software such as spread sheet, create a report using selected fields from the database or query, e payroll for workers of different grade level and format and print out results and that the computer skills needed by business studies teachers in internet are the ability to access the internet, access different websites, download files, Send and access electronic documents, use internet services such as: internet relay, chat, knowledge of distance education and engage in electronic commerce business. Based on the above findings, it was recommended that institutions of higher learning where business studies teachers are being trained should fully equip business education department with ICT gadgets so as to give them necessary training that would enable the teachers have full knowledge and skills they would transfer to their students, to increase professional development opportunities for business studies teachers to be retrained on the use of ICTs will help to integrate and utilize ICTs in junior secondary schools and that business studies should be taught by well equipped teachers, preferably business educators. This could be possible by training more business educators.
Background to the Study
There has been increasing interest in introducing innovations such as computer into the teaching and learning of business studies especially when the Nigeria Education and Research Development Council (NERDC) introduced a modern curriculum into the school system. This involves the use of computers to process information. Nworgu (2008) stated that computer is to be handled with skills and expertise, for effective achievement and realization of its potentials in Education. In the view of Valasidou (2008), computer is an innovative instrumental tool that enables the educators to modify the teaching and learning processes in order to increase students’ interest. Brown (2009) explained that computer is considered very crucial for the achievement of various educational objectives in terms of expanding the citizenry access to education at all levels and improving the quality of teaching and learning process.
According to Daniels (2002), the use of computer educative process has been divided into two broad categories: computer for education and computer in education. Computer for education refers to the development of computer specifically for teaching and learning purposes, while the computer in education involves the adoption of general components of computer in the teaching learning process. Effiong (2005) emphasized that computer use in school curriculum depends highly on the teachers who will use computer to teach the students. This requires that teachers should have the ability to incorporate computer into teaching and learning. Okereke (2008) noted that, application of computer to teaching and learning makes instructions more effective and productive. In this regard computer is viewed as innovations that enable business studies teachers facilitate teaching and learning of business studies.
Business studies are an academic subject that helps students to be exposed to realities of business practices. The subject is designed to introduce students to the foundational knowledge of the principles and practices of business. Okute (2008) opined that business studies are the fundamental subject which has to do with acquisition, conservation and expedition of wealth.
According to Osuala (2004), business studies help the students to make informed decisions in the everyday business of living. Obi (2005), explained that business studies prepares students for business career or enables those in that career become more efficient and advance to higher business positions. In the view of NERDC (2007), business studies will enable the students to acquire the basic knowledge of business studies, develop the basic skills in office occupation, prepare for further training in business studies, have basic skills with which to start a life of work, have basic skills for personal use in future and relate the knowledge and skills they have acquired to the national economy.
These objectives can be achieved through teachers’ effectiveness, who is the implementers of curriculum. A teacher is an individual who is trained in pedagogy and teaching areas of a particular subject to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes to students in an institution. According to Olaitan, Alaribe, and Nwobu (2009), a teacher is a person who communicates knowledge, skills and attitudes to someone in a school. Okute and Agomuo (2010) noted that a teacher is a facilitator of learning; who helps students to realize their full potentials educationally, emotionally, and socially in career selection and transition. Garba and Dambe (2007) defined a teacher as one who possesses practical and theoretical knowledge of his vocation, has clear understanding of the students he teachers, and ensures that he increases in the knowledge of his field at all times. There are male and female business studies teachers. These teachers are trained in different higher institutions of learning where they obtain various qualifications. In this study, a business studies teacher is someone who is trained in pedagogical areas of business education and is charged with the responsibilities of imparting acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes of business studies to students in junior secondary schools.
Secondary school is the school for young people between the ages of 11, 16 and 18. National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) defined secondary education as the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage. Secondary schools are divided into junior and senior sections. The junior secondary school is both pre-vocation and academic. The ability of business studies teachers to teach students computer depend on the level of computer skills possessed. Secondary education is crucial for economic growth. With globalization, the increasing importance of computer in the twenty-first century and rapid technological changes have made knowledge essential for competing in the world economy. Secondary education therefore provides countries with the skills and knowledge needed for economic growth, including furthering learning and training of professionals such as technicians’ scientists and entrepreneurs. Secondary education can also be decisive in fostering positive social and civic values and yields considerable private returns, offering young people the chance to acquire skills that were unlikely to be developed in the primary grades. This in turn enables youth to develop job-oriented skills, participate fully in society, take control of their own lives, and continue learning. According to World Bank in Etim (2006), secondary school is seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. Secondary education is now being recognized as the cornerstone of educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality secondary education is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike.
Skill is a person’s ability in performing a given task well as a result of training and practice. Skill as viewed by Soanes (2001) is the ability to do something well especially, as a result of long practice. Obi (2005), defined skill as manual dexterity acquired through repetitive performance of operations. Osinem and Nwaoji (2005) stated that, skill is the proficiency displayed by someone in the performance of a given task. ICT Skill is the ability required by business studies teachers for effective instruction to junior secondary school students in Enugu education zone.
The new Nigerian curriculum contains some component of computer such as computer appreciation, word processing, data processing, and the use of internet which were absent in the old curriculum of business studies.
Computer appreciation entails the general understanding of the basic building blocks of the computer systems, literacy in operating the computer and using the window interface called window explore and other similar interfaces. Azuka (2000) explained that keyboarding should be emphasized along with the traditional typing; the author identified closer relationship between them likewise word processing, data processing and the use of the internet.
Word processing is the application of computer for manipulating text-based documents; the electronic equivalent of paper, pen, typewriter, eraser, and most likely, dictionary and thesaurus (Encarta, 2009). According to Agomuo (2005), word processing can be likened to a typewriter inside a computer in that it incorporates all the duties of a typewriter which basically are: the ability to type and produce text on paper, store and manipulate text in documents and get printed copies. But when using computers, it deviates a little from the common typewriter. There is the enter key replacing the carrier movement and there are commands (simple ones) for paragraph, indent, spacing and so on. In addition, one can: store the document for future reference or use; make corrections to the documents very conveniently; format your documents to a wide variety of specification; automate some functions such as page numbering, generation of indexes; check the spelling of text in your document for correctness; and have greater control over page layout attribute such as margin and so on. Other area where computer is most useful in daily activities is in the use of the internet and data processing.
The internet is a computer-based global information system (Comer, 2009). It is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively, inexpensively and to have free access to useful data for further processing.
Data processing deals with the analysis and organization of data by the repeated use of one or more computer programmes (Kogge, 2009). Data processing is used extensively in business, and in all areas in which computers are used such as education, to process data educationally by the teachers and other education administrators. The researcher observed that business studies teachers in the state have some difficulties in teaching the ICT component of the curriculum; therefore, they need improvement.
Improvement means change for something better. Improvement, in the explanation of Robinson (2006) is the development of circumstances in which something is lacking to better standard or quality than before. In this study, improvement is viewed as the act of making the level of skills acquired by business studies teachers in ICT better. For business studies teachers to improve in their teaching of the ICT components in the curriculum they need to upgrade their skills.
Need in the view of Chuta (1992) is something required to fill an existing essential gap. Hornby (2005) defined need as something required because it is essential or very important. Olaitan, Nw.(2009) explained that need is a requirement deemed necessary for effectiveness in an occupation. Need is the ICT skills required by business studies teachers to meet a target standard of effective instruction. This need can be obtained through assessment.
Assessment is a process of estimating the worth, quality or effectiveness of a programme or instruction. Walter (2009) stated that assessment is the process of finding or deciding the amount, value, quality or importance of a programme or teachers instruction in a teaching learning process. Assessment is the process of determining the skills need of business studies teachers in computer for effective instruction.
To assist the business studies teachers in the area of study, it becomes important to carry out an in-depth study of the computer skills needed by teachers for teaching and learning of Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone.
Statement of problem
The new curriculum in business studies has been put in place by the government to replace the old one. The new curriculum contains some component of ICT such as computer appreciation, word processing, the use of internet and data processing, which were absent in the old curriculum of business studies. The researcher observed that most business studies teachers in junior secondary schools in the state have some difficulties in teaching the ICT component of the curriculum.
The present business studies teachers are those that were trained and had been working in school system many years ago particularly before the introduction of modern technologies in teaching and learning of business studies. These teachers were not trained with modern ICT technologies and facilities. This suggests that the training they received seems to be irrelevant to the present curriculum because of technological changes taking place in work places where the students will find themselves after graduation. The inefficiency of business studies teachers in imparting ICT skills to junior secondary school students has been noticed in the students’ inability to do well. Ademiluyi (2007) observed that most business studies students do not have the ability to succeed in private enterprise.
The researcher observed that many junior secondary school students after graduation find it difficult to establish and manage small businesses, particularly those who had no opportunity for further training. Those who tried to work in business centres where information is processed with modern technologies found it difficult to manipulate computers and other ICT equipment.
Olufemi and Onyenu (2010) affirmed that the influence of technologies has rendered manual skills inadequate for the world of work while creating needs for new sophisticated skills.
Therefore, it is necessary to determine the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective instruction in junior secondary schools in in Enugu education zone.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching and learning in junior secondary schools in Enugu educational zone Specifically, the study sought to:
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to business studies teachers, junior secondary school students, school administrators, government, and curriculum planners at teachers’ preparation stage and fellow researchers with keen interest on similar subject.
Business studies teachers will find the study useful. The findings of the study will enable the teachers understand ICT skills they needed and their importance. They will have first hand information on computer knowledge they are required to acquire in order to face the challenges of knowledge update through seminars, workshops and conferences. Business studies teachers will know the vacuums of computer knowledge they need to fill up in their academic lives and timely too, to remain relevant in their profession.
Junior secondary school students will also benefit from the result of this study. The study will help them to be better informed on the relevant computer knowledge they need to acquire. They will also know the level of skills they currently posses and seek to fill any gap/vacuum created.
The result of the findings will be of immense benefit to school administrators and the state government. It will provide information that will help them to see the need for adequate provision of computers and materials, organizing workshops, and in-service training of teachers at the junior secondary school levels in the state.
The state government will have better understanding of their participatory responsibilities in curriculum effectiveness.
The findings that will emanate from the study will provide wealth of information needed by curriculum planners for curriculum review and update at teachers’ preparation stage. It will help curriculum planners to be more comprehensive in scope, also, to give participatory opportunities for more learners’ achievement.
Finally, fellow researchers with keen interest in the identification of computer knowledge needed by business studies teachers in computer appreciation, word processing, the use of internet and data processing will be helped to be more focused by the information that will be provided by the study. It will serve as a good starting point for any further meaningful research in this area of study.
Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in public secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone. The zone has a large number of public secondary schools with three Local Government Areas therein. This study is limited to investigating the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching and learning in junior secondary schools in Enugu educational zone.
The following research questions guided the study.
The following null hypotheses were tested at P<0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers in urban school and teachers in rural schools on the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching learning in computer appreciation in junior secondary schools in Enugu education zone.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers in urban school and teachers in rural schools on the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching learning of basic word processing in junior secondary schools in Enugu education zone..
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers in urban school and teachers in rural schools on the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching learning Data Processing in junior secondary schools in Enugu education zone.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers in urban school and teachers in rural schools on the computer skills needed by business studies teachers for effective teaching learning in internet browsing in junior secondary schools in Enugu education zone.