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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Examination has been generally accepted as the best means of assessment. It is a formal test of knowledge or ability. Infact, in a school setting, examination is a means of evaluating the quantity of knowledge a student has acquired within a specific period of time. Adekunle (2003) sees examination as an instrument used for the assessment of individual skills and knowledge-content, both in general and specific area of study.
Teaching and learning become more effective when the students are subjected to an examination process to determine the extent to which the students have assimilated the content of the instruction given and the teacher can also assess himself from the performance of the students. In essence, examinations are used to determine pass or fail of a student or group of students in the opinion. History seems to support the view that setting children against one another in trials and competitions has always been a respectable means of inciting them of deal’’. A student who knows that he might fall on examination which will in turn determine his progress or promotion will strive hard in order to pass. This once more encourages kind of competition within groups of students who will dim at nigh position in their classes.
Examinations are also used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students. For decade, the West Africa Examination Council awards results on the basis of some stratification’s and three. The contemporary practice of (N.C.E). Students are stratified into distinction, credit merit and pass, while in the university also, students are stratified into first, second (upper and lower) or third class degrees having gone through an examination. These grades are a measure of success and prestige. A child with a division one pass in school certificate examination will be regarded by those around him as academically precocious. He is also likely to have a place in the institution of higher learning or in job situation within the society easier than a child with a division three pass. All these conditions have combined to influence a child’s attitude to an examination; attitude which always colonnade in an urge for success in any particular examination whether or not he had prepared for it. These competitions in school have their parallel in the society.
Unfortunately, this all important means of assessing students has become ineffective as all forms of malpractice have been introduced into the system. Adesina (2000) traced the history of examination malpractice in Nigeria to 1914. When there was a leakage of the Cambridge examination. Cheating became widespread in schools hence in 1967, the Alexander Commission was set up as a special commission of inquiry to investigate the incidences of malpractice in Nigeria.
In 1977, there was a widespread leakage of the West Africa School Certificate Examination questions. Government took it as a challenge to address issues of examination malpractice. A special conference was held in that regard at Ibadan in 1986. Decrees were promulgated, schools were sanctioned, results cancelled and invigilators arrested all in a bid to curb malpractice.
The irony of it all is that despite the several attempts made by school authorities, government agencies, parents and church leaders in trying to concentise the Nigerian students on the evils of examination malpractice, this menace is still in its increase in the various schools. There is the need to find out the causes and solutions of examination malpractice in Nigerian schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the background given to this study, it could be seen that examination plays an important role in our educational system as well as the society we live in but hones examinations are hard to find nowadays. Malpractices in examinations have been reported since 1914 when there was a leakage or question papers in the senior Cambridge local examination. Ever since, there have been cases of irregularities reported on a yearly basis. The statement of the problem therefore An Analysis of the Causes and solutions of Examination Malpractice in Selected Secondary School in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
In order to be able to effectively investigate the main problems as stated above the following sub problems are to be investigated.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Examination malpractices have been on the increase since 1963’s, these malpractices indulgent learn new tactics or methods of the crime. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate into some important expects of examination malpractice’s. This study will help specifically to find out:
and the students on the malpractices.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
On the basis of the problems, the following Research Questions were formulated:
This study will be significant in the following ways:
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study covered An Analysis of the Causes and solutions of Examination Malpractice in Selected Secondary School in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. And all the secondary teachers and students in secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State were used for the study.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to investigation of the Causes and solutions of Examination Malpractice in Selected Secondary School in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study of this research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Assessment: Are the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. It is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning. It is the systematic basis for making inferences about the learning and development of students. It is the process of defining, selecting, designing, collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and using information to increase students’ learning and development.
Examination: Examinations are used to determine pass or fail of a student or group of students in the opinion. Examinations are also used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students. For decade, the West Africa Examination Council awards results on the basis of some stratification’s. Examinations are known to play very important roles in our educational system.
Malpractice: malpractice is an “instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional”. Types include: medical malpractice (“A doctor’s failure to exercise the degree of care and skill that a physician or surgeon of the same medical specialty would use under similar circumstances.
Teaching: It can be defined by many scholars of education as “the promotion of learning”. Teaching is the art of impacting knowledge. It knows what to teach the learners and ways of imparting the knowledge in the most effective way possible. Teaching is also that important art that builds up the society by the way it is done, the area in which it is conducted and its cumulative effect on the life of the society. Teaching is a process of inducing learning, it is guiding someone to behave in a given or certain manner beneficial to himself and the society. Teaching is the process by which a teacher guides the learners in the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teaching is essentially a system of interactions involving the teacher, the learner and the learning materials, thus, forming a triangular interaction.
Learning: It can be defined as the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, study, or by being taught. Is the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. Learning is a knowledge or skill gained through schooling or study. The activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something, the activity of someone who learns, knowledge or skill gained from learning, the activity or process of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something or is process of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.