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The way in which the land is held has a great impact on the environmental area. For effective development to be carried out, careful thought should be given on how the land will be gotten and from whom. This work critically examines the way land is held and owned (the land tenure system) in the study area of Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State and also focused on the agricultural development in the aforementioned area. In determining the effect of land tenure in Aguata Local Government Area, this work examines the availability and accessibility of land to farmers, investigates the overall impact of land tenure system and the role of government on agricultural development in the study area. The information used in the study was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interview as well as review of related literature. The questionnaires were distributed to farmers in the study area. The data was analysed using chi-square statistical tool, tables, figures, and percentage based on classification. The study shows that security of tenure seems to be the major implication of the land tenure system prevalent in the study area resulting in lack of investment in agriculture. The study recommended series of direct investment by the government including farm settlement scheme and limitation to right of land ownership in the favor of agricultural development in the study area.
The basic needs of human being are food, shelter and clothing. Human being has developed how to satisfy their needs for food through agricultural system that evolved in various human societies.
In the early time, man himself contributed most to the progress of agricultural development through his labor. Man’s adventure started from gathering of food to the advanced stage and it is called sedentary agriculture where a farmer cultivates same piece of land indefinitely in contrast to shifting cultivation.
Similarly, man tried to satisfy his basic needs for clothing in the earlier time by obtaining materials from fibers and tree barks. Today, man has advanced to the stage of manufacturing andacquiring themost forms of synthesis.
Over centuries of human existence, man has tried to satisfy his basic needs through utilization of neglected factor production that is land. It might be surprising to hear that man has neglected such an important means of satisfying his needs, the belief has penetrated many societies of the world that land is large but its existence was taken for granted.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Aguata is a Local Government Area in Anambra State in Nigeria with its headquarters in Ekwulobia (Location of the headquarter office buildings). Aguata Local Government Area is the home of some Nigeria’s distinguished statesmen and academicians. The Local Government used to be host of the great Federal Polytechnics, Oko, until recently when Orumba north and Orumba South were carved out of the Local Government.
Major towns of the Aguata Local Government Area includes: Ekwulobia, which is the largest town in Aguata with a total population of about five-hundred thousand people and also a major commercial town in Aguata hosting many commercial banks, boasts of a stadium, a federal prison and a major Eke Market. Other towns includes: Akpo, Achina, Uga, Igbo-ukwu, Isuofia, Umuchu, Aguluezechukwu, Ezinifite, Ikenga, Amesi, Oraeri, Umuona, Nkpologwu.
Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State draws its main sustenance from agriculture. Besides, agriculture about 60% of her total export between 1980‘s. Aguata has about 75% of its population in agricultural production but the insufficiency of land is worsened by the prevailing system, of bush fallow agriculture. (Source: Google.com).
The aim of this study is to relate the indigenous land tenure system to the development of agriculture in Aguata Local Government Area and examine the factors of this relationship especially on the incentives to the individual farmers.
Based on this analysis, some suggestions are made regarding the roles of traditional institution as well as roles government play in bringing the system to modern agriculture.
The researcher’s argument is based on the premise of appropriate change, however rapid or extensive change will be effected by essentially revolutionary method imposed. One agrees that land tenure enters deeply into every aspect of human life and it is the integral and expression of all theway in which man uses land and surrenders it.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
In the past decades, agricultural development in Aguata has been uninteresting and this has been a major source of concern to the indigenes. The magnitude of the problem with agricultural development in the area can be accessed from the principle of land tenure in Aguata which manifest in the form of fragmented farm size, congestion and mismanagement and undesirable land use pattern and the application of land Use Act Cap L5 LFN 2004, a land policy aimed at streamlining the ownership and acquisition of land for various purpose including agriculture, has not helped matters as it has a ceiling figure on the magnitude for agricultural purpose.
These phenomena have mostly been caused by perennial inadequate and uneasy access to agricultural land. Hence those have in no small measure, adversely affected agricultural development in Aguata with the result that the practice of agriculture is still at the subsistence giving rise to low productivity, low incomeand low standard of living.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This research work is aimed at investigating the impact of land tenure system on agricultural development area. The objective of this research includes:
iii. To identify the problems of agricultural development in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings will help for continuity in agricultural development through land tenure system. It will serve as a reference material to all those carrying out research in similar topics.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
iii. What problems fight against agricultural development in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State?
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this study lies on examination of land tenure and agricultural development in Aguata Local Government Area. The research focuses on the type of tenure in operation to ascertain its efficiency in meeting the need of modern agriculture as well as X-ray likely prospects, in this area of human endeavor.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The most problem encountered in the process of this research is from those interviewed. Some of them were initially reluctant to listen to the researcher, especially the farmers. The researcher spent lots of time trying to convince them on the need for the study, before they start co-operating.
Hence, there is several visit to the Local Government Headquarters to get information. Many industries were too busy handling other issues which made it difficult for them to attend to the researcher or may be the appropriate officer is not on seat even when there is an appointment. These delayed the execution of the work.
The agricultural development of the Aguata Local Government Headquarters refuse to release any record of their dealing with farmers and agricultural activities claiming they keep no such records. Most of the information’s gathered was through interview with some personnel of the department. This also delayed the work because interview took several days.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
LAND:Land at times referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of the earth that is not permanently covered by water. Land is the original and indestructible part of the soil. In fact, there is no exact definition of land.
TENURE: Is the act, fact, manner or condition of holding something in ones possession as real estate or office or occupation. A period during which something is held. It also means the status of holding one’s position on a permanent basis without periodic contract renewals. (Google.com 2016).
LAND TENURE: Is the relationship whether legally or customarily defined among people as individuals or groups with respect to land. Land tenure is an institution that is rules invented by societies to regulate behavior. It defined how property right to land are to be allocated within societies. Land tenure is an important part of social, political and economic structures. It is multi-dimensional, bringing into account social, technical, economic, institutional, legal and political aspects that are often ignored but must be taken into account.
AGRICULTURE: Is the science or practice of farming including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and rearing of animals to provide food, wool and other products. (Google.com 2016). It is the cultivation of animals, plants and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.
DEVELOPMENT: Is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements. It is an extension of the theoretical or practical aspects of a concept, design, discovery or invention. It is also the process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex, cultural and environmental factor.
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: It is defined as the process that creates the condition for the fulfilment of agricultural potentials. It is the process that boost agricultural production, as well as contribute to rural livelihood and food security.
1.9 AREA OF STUDY
This study focuses on agriculture in rural land in Aguata Local Government Area, its headquarter is in Ekwulobia town, she has an area of about 344km south of Abuja, the capital city of the country. She has a population of 370, 172 as at 2006 census. Aguata Local Government Area is bounded in the north by Aniocha Local Government Area, in the east by Orumba North, and in the south by Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo State. The only airport nearer to the local government area is international airport Asaba.
The local government area is made up of health, agricultural and finance department. The people of the local government produces farm products like yam, cassava, maize, melon, palm oil and other tropical products