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In recent years, the cartoon genre has gained considerable research interest,from all disciplines. Perhaps one of the sternest yet satirical forms of communicating in modern times is cartoon. The term cartoon refers first to metaphorical codification, and second to a satirical or humorous genre through which an artist subtly informs, educates and entertains his viewers. Whereas before the imposition of colonial rule in Africa, traditional African societies possessed their peculiar means of criticizing, satirizing and depicting the socio-economic and political phenomena through songs, poems and drama. Despite the introduction of printing press in 1846 and newspapers in 1859 in Nigeria, the use of cartoon as a means of portraying social realism did not gain currency until 1930s when the West African Pilot newspaper blazed the trail. Since then, cartoon has become pungent instrument of communication and illustration in Nigeria. This paper aims at illustrating the use of cartoon as a factor of Nigeria’s social history. This study will analyze selected cartoons from some cartoonists published in national dailies in Nigeria over the years.
Doubtless, cartooning as an art form and socio cultural expression remains a valid means of collating a people’s life experiences, as well as engineering for them an acceptable social mode through constructive criticisms and applause. Yet, this subject has suffered undue neglect among social scientists and other scholars. This shortcoming is even more apparent in Nigeria where cartoons are granted, at best, no more than a grudging appreciation and, at worst, indifference.
Pictorial form of communication can be said to have existed as long as man himself. In Africa, proof of drawings, paintings and engravings- rock art which is precursor of the cartoon- is available in a variety of sources and oddly enough was discovered earlier than the European ones. Dating these has been rather difficult. Man being perhaps the highest social creature is known to devise clear means and processes of organizing and controlling its teeming populace wherever they commune for development.
Cartoon a visual image, known to be a medium of communication- conveying message quickly and clearly- is one critical component of the development of political processes. Of the various visual forms and illustration genres in modern times, the cartoon is perhaps one of the most usual. It is said to be a visual metaphor or metaphorical codification through which an artist (a functional member of the polity and keen societal gauge trained in close observation), informs, educates or entertains his viewers. Furthermore, it has been classified as a form of ‘cool media’Nelson argues that cartoon is a screaming medium that cannot be denied attention. The pedagogical function of the cartoon has proven a valuable instrument and avenue to educate the readers in any publication where it appears. Cartoons are sometimes satirical and humorous in subject and inevitably elicit readers’ participation.
Some scholars see cartoon as an important medium for the formation of public opinion on salient social issues(Agberia, 1993;Adekambi, 1997;Everette,1974;Vinson1967 )The social history of the country has been elusive given the political culture of the country.
This study aims to look at the visual power of cartoons as a factor of influence on Nigerian social history as well as in reflecting social and political issues in the society as Nigerian social history revolves majorly around the political life.
In Nigeria, the use of cartoon in the media discourse was established as a vital force within the political struggle to liberate Nigeria from British colonization.
Cartoons unveil serious ideas through the use of satire, humor, contrast, surprise and most importantly the use of caricature. In Nigeria, this aim has been achieved as the use of cartoons in Nigerian newspapers has been a means of presenting the social ills and many abnormalities present in the society. Humor in cartoons is used as an instrument to highlight solely current political situation and social issues in society. Thus, humor is seen a tool capable of exposing social and political absurdities of a moment (Kulkarni 2004). Moreover, it is a weapon used to ridicule humanity specifically political leaders in order to address their follies and irrational behaviors for the betterment of society. Thus, humor constitutes a significant element of the cartoon genre within the realm of wider political discourse. Taking into account its communicative effect, humor as described by Robinson (1981) is psychologically pleasurable. It is also, what keeps us amused in stressful moment. On the other side, there is nothing that tyrants and rascals fear more than satire and ridicule, and the graphic form of humor has always proved to be uniquely satirical and painful. Cartoon is commonly regarded as a joke, but in reality it transcends beyond that, for it is an effective device used in political, socio or economic settings to display its message in a realistic and attractive way.
Basically humor is fundamentally perceived as a communicative activity (Lynch 2002). It has also been described as a universal human and social phenomenon, present in both tribal and industrialized societies (Apte 1985). In reality, humor is an essential feature not only in cartoons, but also in all social life. More specifically, humor is depicted in cartoons at varying degrees, some cartoons elicit smile from the audience without being completely funny, while others are so absurd to the extent that they set people laughing. Similarly, the inherent nature of political cartoons can be understood through its framework that incorporates humor as a vehicle of caricaturing.
Considering its communicative feature, the cartoon humor is usually shared between interactants and portrays social, psychological, cognitive processes, cultural norms and value judgment. In addition, it is further described as a kind of play that relieves people from intensities of stressed life (Lewis P. 1989). This feature of humor is apparently found in political cartoons which through its graphic depictions ridicule political leaders and their policies deemed by cartoonists as bad or inappropriate. These depictions are aimed at correcting faulty behaviors and enforcing social norms. Also, the satirical attacks provide a sort of relief to people from the stress of oppressions by the tyrants.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nigerian social history majorly revolves around our political life; the researcher observed that the social history of the country could not be complete without discussing the political life of the nation and the political life going way down into history from the colonial era to the time of independence.
It was also noted that the previous research has not been carried out on the topic so as to point out the necessity of its influence on our daily and national life which emanates the effects of its use on our political, social, and economic aspect of the Nigerian society.
Since the advent of the print media in Nigeria, the newspaper has been the most active way for passing information. Most cartoons that appear in the daily newspapers end up being political instruments than being social critics or economic tool.
People no longer react to the information cartoons portrays any longer, most government official are neglecting the power of cartoon in the society not knowing that cartoon can be able to bring about change in national development.
Most cartoons that appear in this papers are more comic than social and therefore addressed in a humorous than in a persuasive manner most cartoonist are not representing cartoon in a way to influence our social life rather they are misinterpreted to motivate the wrong perception of reasoning more or most especially towards government and its policies.
The research aims to document and articulate cartoon as a tool of influence on Nigeria’s social history, pointing out to the important role that cartoon plays out in our everyday lives, as well as the impacts of these genre of communication has influence on our political life positively over the years, in other to review if the subject matter has been able to achieve an enviable standard in national development and also in reconciling cartoon perception and readership for a better and positive perception in the future.
This genre of communication will be viewed under its involvement in the political, and socio-economic, situation in Nigeria.
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research concentrates on how cartoon can be a factor of influence on Nigeria’s social history and briefly how it brought about change in Nigeria’s history so far.
The research experienced some stumbling blocks which threatened to hamper its progress.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to portray ways in which cartoon has influenced our social and political history so far, more so to change the general perception of individuals so as to see cartoon as a strong and positive tool to influence our social life and so too to see the good such change can incur our a nation’s development through their voluntary action for change.
It will also aid written documentation and literature in the fine and applied arts in Nigeria.
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research method applied to this study includes library research methods and also oral sources such as oral interviews with some cartoonist from various newspaper dailies, oral interview with newspaper readers, oral interviews with children between the ages 10 to 18 years old.
The research heavily relied on secondary and primary sources, secondary sources are collected from materials such as magazines, books, journals, and newspapers majorly.
Some past undergraduate projects has also served as good source of information.
Published and unpublished literary materials as well as gathering information from newspaper articles, internet, libraries and libraries of media houses were very effective.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Cartoon: pictorial representation of events or ideas, optionally accompanied by verbal cues, for the purpose of eliciting laughter.
Comic strip: a group of cartoons in narrative sequence
Editorial/ Political Cartoons: cartoons published either in editorial or public opinion pages of a newspaper of a Political nature.
Gag: one-panel cartoon drawing used to mock advert of some Controversial products occasionally used to comment on social Issues.
Social history: the study of past events as it connected with the society and the way it is organized.
Cartoonist: an artist or person that draws cartoon.
1.8 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The review of literature demonstrates that although there has been considerable research done on cartoons, but little research has focused on the role of cartoon a factor of Nigeria’s social history especially in the Nigerian context, hence the need for this current study arose. Against the backdrop of the nation’s history the print media in Nigeria, being the most widely used media noted in this research and have since been a good reflection is a cause for concern indeed. The first newspaper, lweirohin Fun AwonEgbaAti Yoruba appeared in 1859, and since then, many other newspapers have been established, with many dying and many others surviving. At the moment, though, Nigeria parades quite an appreciable number of national newspapers whose coverage and market reach are spread across the nation. They include: The Daily Times, National Concord, Vanguard, The Nigerian Tribune, The Punch, The Guardian, The New Nigerian, The Comet, This Day, The Anchor, Post Express, and so on.The Nigerian scene had seen, and still experiences, quite a vibrant media field involved in the national life from the beginning. From being posited against colonial occupation and fighting relentlessly for independence in the 1940s and 1950s, the media as major house name in Nigeria grew to take on the military occupation forces of the land and fought them to the ground from the 1970s through to 2000. In all these nationalistic endeavors, Nigerian cartoons have been as involved in the struggles as any other segment of the media. What then accounts for the sad state of cartoons in Nigeria today? Perhaps, some of the answers can be gleaned by considering the history of cartoons and its adverse use in portraying the ills of the society over the cause of our social history so far.