The Project File Details
For a total period of four months, effluent, water and soil samples were collected on a monthly basis from an industrial area in Nnewi in Anambra State in order to determine their constituents. A total of twenty six parameters were analyzed for effluents and water, while a total of fourteen parameters were analyzed for soil. The result showed that effluents from the industry (Promotex) contained a number of contaminants which contaminate the soil and nearby river. Correlation technique was used to determine the degree of relationship between nitrate content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) values of the effluents and water; and to determine the degree of relationship between the pH values and the Arsenic content of the soil. There was a generally low negative correlation for all the months for the effluents(-0.58,-0.07,-0.09,and 0.47 respectively for July, August, September and October) and soil (-0.03,-0.66.and- 0.54 for July, August and October respectively) except for the month of September (0.06) that had a very low positive correlation between the pH and Conductivity values of the soil. The student t-test with N+ N- 2 degree of freedom was used to test for the null hypothesis that there is no significance difference between the Alkalinity and Chloride contents of the effluents and water. The environmental implications established that Ele River as well as the soil in the area is polluted at varying levels by effluents from the industry and surrounding environment.
CERTIFICATION ——————————————————————-i DEDICATION————————————————————————ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT————————————————————iii ABSTRACT————————————————————————–iv CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION———————————————-1 1.1.Background to the Study————————.——————————-1 1.2.Statement of Problem————————————————————4 1.3.Scope of Study —————————————–.————————-6 1.4.Aim and Objectives of Study ————————————————–6 1.5. Significance of the Study ——————————————————7 1.6.Limitations of the Study——————————————————–8 1.7.Conceptual Framework———————————————————8 1.8.Study Area———————————————————————–11 1.9.Plan of Study——————————————————————–19
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW———————————–20 2.1.Introduction———————————————————————20 2.2.Industrial Waste and its composition—————————————-21 2.3.Enviromental Policy Instruments——————————————–27
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY – – — – 32 3.1.Collection of Samples – – – – – – 32 3.2.Method of Determination of Parameters – – – – 34 3.2.1.Physical Parameters – – – – — – 34 220.127.116.11. Determination of Colour – – – – – 34 18.104.22.168.Determination of pH – – – – – – 35 22.214.171.124.Determination of Turbidity – – – – – 35 126.96.36.199.Determination of Conductivity- – – — – 36 188.8.131.52.Determination of Dissolved Solids – – – – 36
vii 184.108.40.206.Total Suspended Solids- – – – – – 37 3.2.2.CHEMICAL PARAMETERS- – – – – – 37 220.127.116.11.Determination of Chemical Oxygen Demand- – – 38 18.104.22.168.Determination of Total Hardness – – — – 38 22.214.171.124.Determination of Alkalinity – – – – – 39 126.96.36.199.Determination of Acidity- – – – — – 40 188.8.131.52.Determination of Nitrate- – – – – – 40 184.108.40.206.Determination of Chloride- – – – – – 41 220.127.116.11.Determination of Sulphate- – – – – – 42 18.104.22.168.Determination of Magnesium- – – – – 43 3.2.3.Heavy Metal Analysis of Effluents- – – – – 44 3.2.4.Anaalysis of Soil Samples- – – – – – 45
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, DATA ANALYSIS, 47 4.1. Results And Discussions ——————————————————–47 4.2. Data Analysis———————————————————————-48
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION————————————————-67 5.1.Summary—————————————————————————-67 5.2.Conclusion And Recommendation———————————————-69 References——————————————————————————-72 APPENDIX 1: Tables Of Raw Data————————————————-76 APPENDIX 2: Statistical Inference————————————————–84
1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Industrial revolution describes the period of transition from an agricultural society, devoid of mechanization, to a society that is based on industry. This results to an increase in technological and economic activities. The origin of industrial development is traceable to the industrial revolution in the 18th century (Abduli, 1996). Industrial revolution applies to a set of technical, economic and social changes associated with a rapid development of industry. Industrial revolution was a term used to describe changes in the British industry. These changes were in the transformation of the coal, iron and textile industries; the mechanization of cotton and woolen industries and the use of steam power. Britain is therefore regarded as the first country to undergo full-scale industrialization. It changed the structure of the British economy. The social and economic relations of the people were affected. Generally, industrial revolution in itself is the shift, at different times in different countries, from a traditionally agricultural based economy to one based on the mechanized production of manufactured goods in large- scale enterprises (Mato,and . Kasceva 1999). Every nation strives to industrialize by working towards greatest degree of self-sufficiency within its bounds. To achieve industrialization successfully, countries need a highly productive agricultural sector; functioning markets; a stable government and a conducive socio-political environment and institutional framework. Such successful industrialization will depend to a very large extent on the degree of utilization of locally available raw materials and other inputs, including local manpower. Industrial activities are not recent in Nigerian history. The Nigerian economy started as a peasant subsistence agricultural economy. Nigeria depended on her cash crops to satisfy the needs of the British colonial masters. By the late 1950s, regional government and needs promoted regional competition and cash crop development. Marketing boards were established to pursue agricultural commodity exports. From
the East flowed rivers of palm oil; from the North, pyramids of groundnut, while in the West were warehouses full of bags of cocoa beans. All these were exported in their raw and unprocessed form. With the discovery of oil in 1956 by Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), Nigeria’s dependence shifted from cash crop economy to an “oil” monoeconomy. Oil then accounted for over 90 percent of Nigeria’s foreign exchange. This ushered in the oil boom era. With the crashing of oil prices in the early 1980s, Structural Adjustment became inevitable as Nigeria found it difficult to meet her obligations. The naira began its decline. Local industries became expensive to run. Consequently, there was massive reliance on imported goods. Sequel to this, the Research Department of National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies made some recommendations on the restructuring of Nigeria’s industrial policy. The experience of industrial activities in Nnewi is not different from the national experience. Nnewi people started with peasant subsistence farming, palm produce trading and transportation business and commercial apprenticeship. According to the records of the Nnewi Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture (NCCIMA) there were 40 registered members in 1992. This number rose to 118 by 1995. The period of 1984-1995 witnessed a high growth in the establishment of industries. A significant number of those industries are still in existence, and their activities greatly increased. The increased industrial activities gave rise to industrial pollution. Industrial pollution is considered one of the major issues in environmental protection. Industries contribute to the pollution of the environment, especially in the absence of regulations that force manufacturers to reduce their hazardous impact.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Industrialization leads to rapidly expanding employment opportunities, a rise of national income per capita, changes in the distribution of income, changes in the domestic living and working condition, changes in social conduct and convention and an overall significant impact on the health and stability of the economy. However, industries contribute to the pollution of the environment through the
discharge of hazardous wastes. These pose potential hazard to humans, plants and animals. Nnewi is a densely populated town, rich in both commercial and industrial activities. Over the last ten years, it has fastly grown from a village to an urban centre. The rapid urbanization of the town is not without its attendant problems, there is visible urban decay. Urban Development Authorities have not been regulating developmental activities. A major consequence is that industries spring up indiscriminately in all parts of the town without regulation. Production and waste generation go on uncontrollably leading to massive pollution of both water and land resources. PROMOTEX is an example of one such industrial establishment located at the centre of the town. It produces soap and cosmetics and discharges its effluents untreated into the Ele River, a major link to other sources of potable water in the town. Over the years, successive changes have been observed around this Ele River. These observations have stimulated the interest to undertake this study. Consequent upon this, there is need to study the impact of these effluents on the environment.
1.3. SCOPE OF STUDY The study spanned a period of 4 months (July to October). Soil analysis and effluent analysis were carried out. A total of 26 Parameters were analyzed for the effluent, while a total of 14 Parameters were analyzed for the soil.
1.4. AIM AND OBJECTIVES
AIM: The aim of this study is to characterize the effluent wastes from PROMOTEX industry and ascertain its impact on pollution of the Ele River and its immediate environment.
OBJECTIVES: In order to achieve the aim of the study, the following objectives were pursued. The specific objectives were to:
1. ascertain the raw materials and production processes employed at PROMOTEX industry 2. establish the physiochemical constituents of effluents from PROMOTEX 3. establish the extent of pollutant inload and determine the impact of untreated effluents from PROMOTEX on the soil and surface water quality of the area.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The availability of baseline data of pollutant indices is essential for waste management, facility monitoring and environmental regulation. The study will aid Policy makers in making policies that will protect the environment from industrial activities, while still encouraging industrialization. Environmental Managers will also find the study useful in the management of the environment with a view to ensuring sustainable development. Future researchers will find the study useful. The methodology that will be adopted will serve as a basic guide for subsequent researches. The research will also help to create environmental awareness of both the government and the people.
1.6. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The study has the following limitations:
(a) FINANCE: Huge amount of money was needed to carry out a more detailed research. The researcher therefore limited the work to the confines of her financial ability. (b) TIME: There is need to carry out study across the two seasons of the year, but time constraint limited the work to four months.
1.7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework that was used is the hydrogeopollution cycle. Hydrogeopollution cycle looks at cyclicity of hydrogeochemical pollutants via the hydrologic cycle. This cycle explains the cyclic movement of water in the outer part of the earth and reservoirs or the “storage tanks” where water may be held in varying lengths of time (Egboka et al. 1989, Nnodu and Ilo, 2000). As the water body moves in a cycle, it carries along with it, from point to point, the geochemical elements of nature as shown in figure I. When effluents are discharged from industries, they find their way into surface waters through runoff and consequently pollute these water bodies. Some of the effluents sip into the soil thereby impacting on the land. Since a large number of industries are concentrated in Nnewi North Local Government Area, and effluents from these industries are released to the various sections of the environment, there is no doubt; these resultant geochemical elements are circulated from one point of the hydrological cycle or the other. Therefore, a research of this type was due for the area.
ENERGY FROM THE SUN DRIVES THE ENTIRE PROCESS
Surface Runoff Runoff River Lake Water table Percolation Fresh ground water Soil Water Ocean
Figure.1.THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE (SOURCE: Modified from Egboka et.al, 1989).
1.8. STUDY AREA The study area Nnewi, lies between Longitudes 6o 911E and 6o 551 E and Latitudes 6o 161N and 6o 101N. The climate is tropical. It has an average annual rainfall of 200mm and mean temperature of 27oC. The months of April to October experience heavy rainfall, while low rainfall, higher temperature and low humidity characterize the months of November to February. Nnewi generally is situated some 30 Kilometers Southeast part of Nigeria. It is a highly commercial town, which has undergone rapid urbanization and industrialization within the past two decades since the end of the Nigerian civil war. The people are Igbos, though people from other ethnic groups like the Hausa, Yoruba, etc. can be found. Industrialization has enjoyed priority status in this locality as a requirement for modernization and economic progress. The rapid urbanization, aggressive industrialization and the attendant uncontrolled population growth have had deleterious impact on the environment. Nnewi is a high-density commercial center east of the Niger. It has become synonymous with both local and international trade. This commercial image has been enhanced in recent years by the establishment of hundreds of small- and medium-scale industries. Often the industries are sited without consideration for the effects of their effluents on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and without the approval of relevant authorities. The untreated sewage and sludge have the potential to contaminate the aquatic ecosystem because of their pollutant loads. Consequently, the health of the local population, which depends on the water and food from farmlands close to these industries, may be adversely affected. There are many industries in Nnewi. One of the most prominate industries in Nnewi is the Chicason group of industries. It is a conglomerate comprising RIMCO (manufactuer of life vegetable oil) A-Z company (producers of greese, and oil hydraulics) a plastic industry and PROMOTEX (specializes in soap and cosmetics production). All these industries are established as an aggregate within the same vicinity. Promotex was chosen as a case study because of its proximity to the Ele River, and the fact that its effluents are discharged into the river.
Figure2. Map of Nigeria showing Anambra State
Figure 3. Map of Anambra State showing Nnewi North L.G.A.
Figure 4. Map of Nnewi North L. G. A. showing location of industry worked on.
1.9. PLAN OF STUDY To ensure clarity of understanding, the dissertation was organized into five chapters. Chapter one shows a general introduction of the work; Chapter two reviews the past works on the subject; the methodology of the study was shown in Chapter three, while the results and discussions, data analysis were presented in Chapter four. Chapter five shows the conclusion and recommendation. Finally, the statistical calculations and the deduced tables were shown in the appendices.