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We visited various locations during the time of our field exercise which include: Ekerekunta, Akpoha, Ogo ubi, Okpo ezi, Amaeta Enu. The present study area is bound within the latitude of 5055” N to 6° 0’ 0” N and longitude of 7055” E to 8° 1’ 0” E in the Southern Benue Trough within the Afikpo syncline and Abakaliki anticlinorium in south eastern Nigeria. The shale units underlie the bioturbated sandstones. Sedimentary structures were also observed in the study area, which include tabular cross stratification, beddings, herribone structures, asymmetrical ripples and trough cross beds. Asymmetrical ripples and trough cross beds indicates a high energy current. These bioturbated sandstones have high altitude (deeply steeping strikes and dips). This might be due to less period of exposure to erosion. The mapped area is drained by the streams of the Cross River system and Ebonyi River (Asu River). Compass/clinometers were used to obtain several measurements from outcrops within the study area. Samples gotten from the area of study were also taken to the laboratory for detailed analysis and results. Some rocks of economic importance were also seen like limestone, etc.




Title page                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                 ii

Approval                                                                                                     iii

Dedication                                                                                                   iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                     v

Abstract                                                                                                      xi


  • Background of the Study 1
  • Aims and Objectives 2
  • Location of Study Area 2
  • Physiology and Topography 3
  • Drainage 5
  • Vegetation 6
  • Weather and climate 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                           9


3.1     Desk study                                                                                        16

3.2 Field Study                                                                                            16

3.3 Preliminary stage                                                                                   16

3.4 Reconissance stage                                                                                16

3.5 Detailed study                                                                                       17

3.6 Methodology                                                                                         18

3.7 Reporting                                                                                              19


4.1 Description of Mapped Lithologic Units                                                 20

4.1.1 Location One                                                                                      21

4.1.2 Location Two                                                                                     24

4.1.3 Location three                                                                                     27

4.1.4 Location Four                                                                                     30

4.1.5 Location Five                                                                                      32

4.1.6 Location Six                                                                                       33

4.1.7 Location Seven                                                                                   36


5.1 Palynological Biostratigraphy analytical report                                       38

5.1.1 Method of sample preparation                                                             38

5.2     Palynological Result                                                                          39

5.2.1 Station Five                                                                                        39

5.2.2 Station Seven                                                                                      40

5.2.3 Station Nine                                                                                        41

5.2.4 Station Eleven                                                                                    42

5.3 Summary of Age Assessment                                                                 43

5.4 Kerogen Investigation                                                                            45

5.4.1 Method of Study                                                                                 45

5.5 Result                                                                                                    45

5.6 Petrographic report of Sandstone samples                                               47

5.6.1 Classification                                                                                      47

5.7 Methodology                                                                                         53


6.1 Structural Geology                                                                                 54

6.2 Economic Geology                                                                                56

CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSION                                                       58

REFERENCES                                                                                          59




1.1 Background of the study

Geological and geophysical studies have enabled a  rather broad understanding of the geology of the Benue trough. Only in the latter part of the 20th century that a more understandable picture of the structural framework within which the benue trough has been resolved.

Benkheli (1982) and Guiraud (1993) deduced that the benue trough is thought  to be as a collection of pull apart basins related to strike-slip movement along deep-seated basement shear zones of pan African origin reactivated as oceanic transform faults. Proof of this view can be deduced from field evidence in the northern benue trough where the climate and the nature of the sedimentary units allow for classic geologic study. The fine grained nature of most of the units and dense vegetation in the southern benue trough as a result of a wet tropical climate have hindered field studies and created a missing link in the proper explanation of the structural framework of the basin (Okonkwo,2014). Afikpo basin is located in the southern benue trough between the Abakaliki anticlinorium running north east. It forms part of the lower benue trough and the adjacent Anambra basin. The Ezeaku formation is believed to represent typical shallow water deposit consisting of grey to black shales and siltstones. Sedimentation took place in the Afikpo basin ranging in age from from Cretaceous to Mastrichian. The thickness of this formation varies and may be up to 100m thick and passes laterally into sandstone ridges at Amasiri sandstone, calcareous rocks and sandy calcareous rocks.

1.2 Aims and objectives

To produce a geologic map showing detailed description of the lithologies as well as the structures present in the study area.

To identify mapable rock units and logging

To study the lithostratigraphy of Ekerekunta and its Environs

To deduce the geologic history and possibly geologic time sequence of the deposition

Description of the different lithologies (geologic details) encountered

1.3 Location of the Study Area

The present study area is bound within the bearings 5055” N to 6° 0’ 0” N and 7055” E to 8° 1’ 0” E in the Southern Benue Trough within the Afikpo syncline and Abakaliki anticlinorium in south eastern Nigeria. Various locations in the study area include: Ekerekunta, Akpoha, Ogoubi, Okpoezi, Amaeta Enu. Accessibility was by road and tracks and interconnected bush paths. The Abakaliki-Afikpo highway also provides a good accessibility into the study area and out.


Figure 1 : Accessibility map of the study area


1.4 Physiology and Topography

Afikpo is about 164 square kilometres in size with an undulating topography an elevation of 17m above mean sea level. The shale units underlie the bioturbated sandstones. These bioturbated sandstones have high altitude (deeply steeping strikes and dips). This might be due to less period of exposure to erosion.




Figure 2 : Topographical map of the study area





1.5 Drainage

The mapped area is drained by the streams of the Cross River system and Ebonyi River (Asu River). The drainage in the area consist of series of which emerge from the ridge and cleaned to the plain valley which widen at the foot of the ridge. The lithology of the area affects the development pattern and density of streams. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic with a few rectangular or trellis patterns and the streams haven’t reached matured stage. These drainages serve as source of water supply to some of the villages and communities. Springs and seepages abound in the study area contributes to the drainage of the area.

Figure 3 : drainage map of the study area.


1.6 Vegetation

There are considerable disparity in vegetation between the shaley plains and the sandstone ridges. The ridges are generally covered with sparse vegetation while the plains have luxuriant vegetation. This is because the sandstone ridges are permeable and could not hold sufficient water to support luxuriant vegetation while the lowland plains of mud rocks are impermeable and thus retain water very well for crops.


















1.7 Weather and Climate


There are two marked seasons in the study area; the wet and dry season. The wet season begins in March and ends in October and the dry season begins from October through February. These two seasons are dependent on the two prevailing winds blowing over the country at different times of the year. The dry harmattan wind from the Sahara desert prevails in the dry season ranging from 20°c to 38°c and during the rainy season



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