Download the complete library and information science project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES AND SERVICES IN THE SPECIAL EDUCATION CENTRE LIBRARIES IN SOUTH-EAST, NIGERIA. here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.
The Project File Details
The study focused on ascertaining the availability and utilization of information resources and services in the special education centre libraries in South-East, Nigeria. The study was prompted due to the problems encountered by physically challenged student in the use of normal library services. Six research questions were posed to guide the study, while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted survey research design, and used observational checklist and rating scale as data collection instruments. The sample size for the study was 430 comprising five special education staff and 425 special education pupils/students. Two-stage sampling simple random sampling was made. Cronbach Alpha technique was used to ascertain a reliability coefficient of .85. Frequency count, standard deviation and mean score were used to address the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using t-test of difference. Results revealed that the number of available information resources for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected in this context. That the number of available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The study also revealed that the available information services for the blind and partially sighted is significantly less than expected, the available information services for the deaf and hard of hearing is also significantly less than expected. The available information resources for the blind and partially sighted are not fully utilized, and the available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing are not fully utilized. The study concluded that the provision of information resources and services is less than expected. Also the available information resources and services are not fully utilized by the physically challenged groups studied for any significant impact in learning. It was recommended that, there should be provision of information resources, such as Braille resources; tactile or raised surface; sign language books; adaptive or electronic devices. Services like: on-sight support; guided tours; facilities, etc. Every such library should employ librarians who are clearly aware of the nature of work they do. Adequate funding for proper management of the special education centre libraries in Nigeria in such a way as to meet the present day educational demand for these classes of /pupils/students studied, among others. Suggestions for further studies were also made.
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENT VIII
LIST OF TABLES X
Chapter One: Introduction
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 9
Scope of the Study 10
Purpose of the Study 11
Significance of the Study 12
Research Questions 14
Chapter Two: Review of Literature
Conceptual Framework 17
Theoretical Framework 91
Review of Empirical Studies 95
Summary of Review of Literature 106
Chapter Three: Research Design and Procedures
Design of the Study 108
Area of the Study 108
Population of the Study 110
Sample and Sampling Technique 110
Instruments for Data Collection 111
Validation of the Instruments 112
Reliability of the Instruments 112
Method of Data Collection 112
Method of Data Analyses 113
Chapter Four: Results
Data Analysis Based on Research Questions and Hypothesis 114
Summary of Findings 125
Chapter Five: Discussion of Findings and Summary of the Study
Discussion of Findings 127
Educational Implication of the Findings 130
Limitation of the Study 132
Suggestions for Further Study 134
Summary and Conclusion 135
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: The use of touch (Braille for the blind) 33
Figure 2: Sign language and assistive listening devices 34
Figure 3: Proposed information flow and utilization model 74
Figure 4: Special librarian of Today and Tomorrow 80
Figure 5: A typical visually challenged child engaging in science
learning, a spider’s web becomes accessible through a tactual
Diagram in the library 84
Figure 6: Skinner Box 93
Figure 7:Researcher modified Skinner box 95
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: The Information Resources Available for the blind and partially sighted
Table 2: The Information Resources Available for the deaf and hard of hearing
Table 3: The Information Services Available for the blind and partially sighted
Table 4: The Information Services Available for the deaf and hard of hearing
Table 5: The Extent of Utilized of Available Information Resources by the blind and partially sighted
Table 6: Extent of Utilization of Available Information resources by the deaf and hard of hearing
This chapter is organized under the following subheadings: background to the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research. questions, and hypotheses.
Background to the Study
There are persons with physical challenges at all levels in every society.The physically challenged are those who are hindered or prevented from acting or living the way ordinary people do. Lawal-Solarin (2012), defines physical challenge as an inability to perform some or all the task of daily life, or a medically diagnosed condition that makes it difficult to engage in activities of daily life. In the view of Gobalakrishnan (2013) physically challenged could be described as those restricted, hindered or prevented to have equal opportunities with their contemporaries due to physical deformity, he said they include the visual,hearing, mobility, cognitive, language and speech impaired. Physically challenged persons can as well be described as those hindered either by physical or mental defect from receiving a normal education or even from pursuing normal vocation.
The total number of people with disabilities in Nigeria according to the 2006 census were 3 253,169 and the percentage is approximately 2.32 percent of the total population of 140,431,790 in that year (Umeh&Adeola, 2013). The 2006 estimated figure notwithstanding, extent of disabilities in Nigeria has not been ascertained. Evidence of what is claimed to be the figure as given by World Report on Disability in 2011, said about 25 million Nigerians had at least one disability, while 3.6 million of them had very significant difficulties in functioning (http://www.cbm.org/Nigeria-266847.php). Physical challenge has a substantial long-term adverse effect on one’s ability to carry out usual day to day activities.Majority of the physically challenged lives below poverty line due to years of neglect by the society, especially their lack of access to paid employment.
The physically challenged is often misconceived as unwell, unable to work, read and in need of help persons and people that deserve pity. Okoli (2010) lamented that disabled people are living in an environment that is hostile to their yearnings and aspirations. Indeed, concerns about the challenges encountered by physically challenged individuals have been expressed by various authors such as Ejedafiru (2011), Ilayaraja and Manoharan (2012), Momodu (2013) and many others. Of particular interest, is the fact that individuals with disabilities encounter discrimination, isolation and rejection, which can lead to frustration in some cases, and can adversely degenerate to a level that an individual may not be able to actualize his aspirations.
The causes of physical challenges vary throughout the world. According to the United Nations (2014), those variations are the result of different socio-economic circumstances and of the different provisions that states make for the wellbeing of their citizens. However, through special education and rehabilitation, they cease to be a liability to the society and contribute to national development. In order to give a meaningful life to these groups of people in the society, the Federal Government of Nigeria saw the need to give everyone the same chance of being educated. This is reflected in the National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004) where provision is made for special education.
According to Uchime (1998), special education is the education of children and adults who have learning difficulties because of one sort of physical challenge or another. In the view of Anjiode (2010), special education is the education of persons who have learning difficulties due to circumstances of birth, inheritance, mental and physical health pattern or accident. It can as well be used to refer to education of people (children and adults) who have difficulties in learning; they could be deaf, blind, crippled, mentally retarded, etc. The purpose and objectives of special education according to Abubakar and Salamatu (2014), are to give concrete meaning to the idea of equalizing educational opportunities for all children, their physical, mental, emotional disabilities notwithstanding, and to prosvide adequate education for all physically challenged children and adults in order that they may fully play their roles in the development of the nation.
The establishment of Special Education Centres by the governments in South-East, Nigeria is a step in the right direction. As stated by United Nations (UN) re-declaration of the International Year of Disabled Person (IYDP) in 2015 that physically challenged (such as the blind and partially sighted, the deaf and hard of hearing, and many more) should be given full opportunities for general education. However, there are conflicts on what should be considered offensive or derogatory by people with or without disabilities. Lawal-Solarin (2012) notes that terms such as handicapped, disabled, impaired, etc. are seen to be deliberate insult and inherently negative. This means that, certain people are offended by such terms and it can cause harm to them. On this note, various authors such as Ejedafiru (2011), Ilayaraja and Manoharan (2012)Lawal-Solarin, (2012),Momodu (2013), among others,have come to accept the terms ‘physically challenged’ and ‘persons with special needs’ as the functional terms used in describing individuals with various forms of disabilities like deafness, blindness, mental retardation mobility impaired, etc. In view of these, the study adopts the terms physically challenged’ and persons with special needs and it will be used interchangeably.
In the present day information age, access to information is vital if an individual (whether normal or physically challenged) is to function effectively. Contributing to the importance of information, Atinmo (2000) earlier stated that persons who are print disabled require the same accessibility like the sighted if they are to operate efficiently without disadvantages. This is in line with the major objectives of inclusive education, equality of education, education for all and library and information service for all, which are all enshrined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and National Policy on Education of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (NPE) (2004). The knowledge society also demands that all
citizen, including the physically challenged, should have access to full information. More so, this is the basis for enabling people, especially persons with special needs to participate as active citizens since they need to make informed choices and decisions. In the same line of thought, Eze (2014) posits that availability and use of relevant, accurate and current library resources and services by the physically challenged are veritable means of developing human resources and accentuating sustainable self-reliance and national development. Based on this view,
There should be schools for education of the persons with special need;
There should be schools adequately equipped for the education of the blind and with qualified teachers;
That education system should ensure to all blind children education according to their interest and aptitude; and
The curriculum of these schools also should cover the special needs of the physically challenged so that they could be developed in order to improve their standard of living (NPE, 2004: 9)
It is important to state that, these types of schools are very necessary as they must meet educational need of the physically challenged which exceeds those of conventional learners. With adequate provision of library resources and services, as well as access to an effective learning environment, a physically challenged person can have a rewarding education.
With the establishment of Special Education Centres, therefore, comes the establishment of special libraries which helps immensely in the teaching and learning of special needs students in such schools. A library in the special education centre as an organized collection of information resources is established to meet the varying needs of its heterogeneous clientele for information, education and entertainment or leisure and to help their socio-economic emancipation, development and growth (Uchime, 1998). In other words, it is not just enough to establish a library in the special education centres but the library must be measured by the availability and utilization of its information resources and services. Perhaps that is why Dike (2006), stressed that, a beautifully designed and constructed special education centre library would be a monumental waste if it is not stocked with print and electronic resources, specially packaged with information resources and services, and provided with high caliber professional and specialized staff for these special groups of library users. In this regard, special libraries should be committed to providing equal access to all categories of students, especially the blind and partially sighted, the deaf and hard of hearing in the special education centres in South-East part of Nigeria, which are not well taken care of today in the society.
However, in agreement with MDGs, Eze (2014) posits that making available and accessible library resources and services for these less privileged people with a view to making them to be better informed and be more useful and productive is necessary if the much envisaged sustainable development is to be realized. In the light of the above premises, therefore, it is not in doubt that physically challenged transformation by whatever means would not become an accomplished reality without constant supply or flow of information resources and services. This underscores the reason why special education centre libraries should play a dynamic role and be fully integrated in any physically challenged rehabilitation in its entire ramification. To this effect, books and other related resources should be made available to the special need students as stipulated in the established standard for library services to disadvantaged persons (American Library Association (ALA) (2001); International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) (2005); and Library of Congress (LC) (2009). It is important to note at this juncture that the standard checklist did not indicate quantity; rather, it listed and discussed personnel, resources, services, and facilities to be made available in the libraries serving disadvantaged persons.
Availability is a condition of something being available, especially of being accessible or obtainable. According to Abubakar (2007) availability means making resources available in the library for use. This is to say that library resources such as large print books, Braille and tactile formats, sign language books adaptive technology devices, etc. including services like guided tours, on-sight support, care-giving service, etc. should be provided in the library for use. IFLA (2005) and Ibironke (2007) suggested that other support facilities that can enhance utilization of library resources and services include ramps; handrails; accessible pathways and so on, should be provided. For the purpose of this work, availability relates to the library information resources and services for pupils/students with special needs being physically present in the libraries studied.
On the other hand, utilization can be viewed as the process of accessing or making use of available resources and services as a means to solving one’s academic problems. Prout (2009) defines utilization as making use of facilities for the purpose of attaining educational goal. In the same vein, Ekwom (2015) sees it as the act of making use of something or thing for a purpose,she said, for instance, library is used practically for learning, teaching research and recreational purposes. This suggests that availability of information in whatever medium is meaningless if it does not meet the complex behavior needs of the users. Utilization in this context refers to the extent of usage of library resources and services by physically challenged pupils/students in the special education centres studied.
These laudable contributions of various authors confirmed that the indispensable position of library information resources and services in the education of the physically challenged students has never been in dispute.It is therefore a professional need to investigate the extent of availability and utilization of appropriate information resources and services for the physically challenged in the selected special education centre libraries in South-East, Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
The physically challenged student library users form part of the heterogeneous clientele who seek library services or information to supplement their desire for educational attainment. Regrettably, due to their peculiar nature, their effectiveness to utilize the needed library resources and services seem to be greatly affected. It is worrisome too that information resources and services meant for this category of users tend to be rarely available for their utilization, and where they are available, they seem to be underutilized. These students and pupils need to have equal access to library and information resouces to meet with their academic work and other informations needs. If the students and pupils in the special education schools do not have equaled access to library information resources, it may result in poor educational outcomes which may also de-generate to poor quality of life on their path. This leads to the questions, are there available information resources and services for the physical challenged in the special education schools under study? Are the available information resources and services utilized? This study therefore is focused on finding answers to these questions by ascertaining the availability and the utilization of information resources and services in the special education centre libraries in the south-East, Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
The content scope of the study focused on the available information resources like (Braille resources, talking books, twin vision resources, large print materials, tactile or raised surfaces, moon books sign language resources, adaptive technology devices, etc. and services (translatory service, care giving service, advisory and counseling, guided tours etc) as well as the utilization level of these resources and services in the special education centre libraries in South-East, Nigeria. The study is restricted to five special education centre libraries. One is located in Umuahia, Abia State, two in Oji River, Enugu State and two in Owerri, Imo State. Though there are other states in South-East with special education centres, such as Anambra and Ebonyi States, but these centres have no libraries to help impact knowledge to these less privileged citizens. These special education centres libraries are those meant for students and pupils at primary and secondary school level in government owned schools.The respondents were all the primary school pupils and secondary school students with blind and partially sighted, deaf and hard of hearing impairment in the special education centres studied. They are selected because they seem to be more prevalent in special education centres more than other forms of physical challenges.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to determine the availability and utilization of information resources and services in the special education libraries in South-East, Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to all stakeholders in special education, especially the special need students; their teachers; the Special education librarian; government, the parents of the students with special needs; researchers and the society at large.
Pupils/students stand to gain from this study as it would help them to identify and utilize the relevant library resources and services available in the special education centre libraries. The study would also enable the physically challenged to understand that they are accepted as members of the society which could as well help their emotional instability. It would equally help them to receive valuable educational assistance.
Equally, the teachers stand to gain from the study, as it could make library services more meaningful to the teacher as the resources and services available in the library for the physically challenged could serve as a relief to the teachers, who now could use the library as the point of information gathering for educational training of the physically challenged.
The study will be beneficial to special education librarians, as it would assist to improve in library services and be practicable and profitable to users. The librarians will also come to see the need toencourage the special need students to use the library resources and services available in their school libraries.
The government, at the state and federal level, stand to benefit from the study, as the findings of the study would provide an important component for decision making in equipping of the schools, so that areas of the availability and utilization of information resources and services that need to be strengthened may be identified and appropriate actions taken. The study would also reveal to the government the need for adequate support which will help in co-coordinating the programme, to suit the needs of the physically challenged.
Parents of the physically challenged children will also benefit from the findings of this study as they will encourage them to use the library as it enhances their social relations.
The library and information professionals and researchers interested in special education libraries would benefit from this study because it will make provisions in the area of Library Services to the Disadvantaged Persons (LSDP), as well as add to the existing body of literature in library services on the same subject matter.
The society stand to benefit from the study, as the research outcome could serve as practical conviction on the acceptability of the physically challenged especially the blind, the partially sighted, the deaf and the hard of hearing. It has political and economic significance, a well resource library would enlighten the political acumen of the physically challenged so that they can vote and make political choices. And also create job opportunities for them.
To achieve the forgoing objectives, the following research questions are posed.
The following null hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
The extent of the utilization of the available information resources for the blind and partially sighted in the special education centres is not significant.
The extent of the utilization of the available information resources for the deaf and hard of hearing in the special education centres is not significant.