The Project File Details
This research work is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the radio advertisements on family planning programmes bearing in mind the impact of family planning advertisement on the radio audience. The research method used was survey method and questionnaire being the instrument. The findings got from the questionnaire shows that the people of Enugu metropolis now know where to go and get the proper family planning method of their choice. And also what family planning is all about. I hereby recommend that the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria should not relent in their efforts of advocating for family planning programmes.
Title Page – – – – – – – – – -i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem – – – – 10
1.3 Significance of the study – – – – – – 11
1.4 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 13
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 14
1.6 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – 15
1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definitions of Terms – – 16
1.8 Assumptions of the study – – – – – – 18
1.9 Limitations of the study – – – – – – 19
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Sources of literature – – – – – – 20
2.2.1 The concept of family planning – – – – – 20
2.2.2 Birth control methods – – – – – – 24
2.2.3 Radio as a Medium of Advertising – – – – 27
2.2.4 Radio as a Means of Development Communication – – 29
2.3 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – 33
2.4 Summary of Literature Review – – – – – 35
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY:
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Area of Study – – – – – – – 37
3.3 Population of the study – – – – – – 38
3.4 Research sample size and sampling technique – – – 38
3.5 Instrument used for Data Collection – – – – 39
3.6 Validity of the Instrument – – – – – – 40
3.7 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 41
3.8 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 41
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – – – 42
4.2 Hypotheses Testing – – – – – – 56
4.3 Discussion on Findings – – – – – – 63
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 64
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 65
5.3 Recommendations for further study – – – – 66
REFERENECES – – – – – – – – 68
APPENDIX – – – – – – – – – 71
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Advertising can be traced down to the origin of man.
Therefore, it is a phenomenon that has been with the society for
a very long time.
Although advertising is so popular, it is difficult to come
up with a single and an all embracing definition. However some
scholars have proffered some definitions, which will be
highlighted in this study.
According to academic’s dictionary of mass communication,
compiled by Michael Hoffmann (2007, p.9) “Advertising is a paid,
medicated, form of communication from an identifiable source,
designed to persuade the receiver to take some action, now or in the
Throwing more light on this, the dictionary of business and
finance captures it as any form of paid public announcement or
presentation, which is aimed at the promotion of the sake of
goods and services, or at gaining acceptance for any idea or
point of view.
No wonder Okunna (2002, P.99) Jonathan E. Aliede, says in
their more recent and widely accepted definition states thus that,
advertising is the non – personal communication of information,
usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products
(goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through
various media. From the above running background, it is
obvious that advertising from all indication is usually the easiest
means to reach the target consumer directly. Therefore,
advertising enables sponsor to reach a substantial segment of
their target audience through various media especially print and
But before casting our research searchlight on the
effectiveness of radio advertisement as one of the media on
family planning programme advertisement, it is pertinent that
we focus this research search light on the history of family
planning programme because a people without a history is like a
people without a past.
On the other hand, the historical development of man’s
desire to control his reproduction is as old as humanity. The
WHO (World Health Organization) definition of family planning
states that it is a way of thinking and living that is adopted
voluntarily based on the knowledge, attitudes and responsible
decisions by individuals and couples in order to promotes health
and welfare of the family group and thus; contribute effectively
to the social development of the country. Egyptians as early as
1850 BC described various methods of birth control in scrolls.
Aristotle, A Greek Philosopher in the 4th century B.C stated that
the state’s best interest would be served by keeping the
In the early history of African culture, the mother and the
infant were separated from the father for prolonged periods of
time following childbirths; consequently, this practice ensured a
good nutritional period for the infant and abstinence for the
mother. The above underscores the fact that family planning is
as old as history itself.
In 1797, Jeremy Bentham advocated birth control in
England. Giving credence to what Bentham advocated for,
Francis place whose dissertation, “Illustrations and proofs of the
Principles of Population” published in 1882 made a remarkable
impact which proposed contraception to reproduction.
Subsequent theories by Thomas Malthins, an Englishman who
wrote “An Essay of the Principle of population” in 1798 which
stated that poverty was unavoidable because the means of
production could not increase as quickly as the population also
made an impact.
It is under the above influence that Dr. Aletta Jacobs, in
1881 began the first systematic work in contraception in Holland.
She and her medical colleagues gave professional assistance to
birth control advocates in other countries. Consequently, their
effort saw the light of the day when the first birth control clinic
was opened in England by Marie Stopes and society for
constructive Birth Control in 1921. Margaret Sanger in her little
way in 1916 opened the first family planning clinic, which was
closed down 9 days later by the authorities, who were against
the consequently was imprisoned. As a result of that, she went
on hunger strike for 103 hours. This led the U.S women to
demonstrate and make an appeal to the government. These
actions led to her release and allowed to carry on with her
pioneering work in family planning.
It is from the above background that family planning
is defined as; “the control of reckless breeding of children” by
Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN). The
questions that are still begging for answer is, has the adequate
awareness of family planning been made? If yes, to what extent
and how has this awareness affected the life of the public in
view? Consequently, the above question cannot be adequately
addressed without looking into how this awareness is done.
This invites us to stand out and cast a look on how Federal Radio
Corporation of Nigeria Enugu as our study carries out this
awareness task and how effective has been this task? Since the
past is always very important in addressing any problem for a
better promising future, it is important to trace how the above
named institution came into existence. For this would give us a
better stand to address the issue at hand.
The FRCN was originally founded in 1933 by the British
colonial government, named the Radio Diffusion Service (RDS),
it allowed the public to hear the British Broadcasting
Corporation’s foreign radio service broadcasts in certain public
locations over loudspeakers.
In April 1950, the RDS became the Nigerian Broadcasting
Service and introduced ration stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu,
Ibadan and Kano. This service was reorganized into the
Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) on April 1, 1957 by
act of parliament. Its mission was to provide as a public service,
independent and important broadcasting services. By 1962 the
NBC had expanded its broadcast stations into Sokoto,
Maiduguri, Ilorin, Zaria, Jos and Katsina in the North; Port
Harcourt, Calabar and Onitsha in the East; and Abeokuta, Warri
and Ijebu-Ode in the West. Each of these stations was
considered a subsidiary station of a regional station.
The subsidiary stations broadcast local interest programs
during part of the days and then relayed programming from
their regional stations during the rest of the broadcast day.
National programs were broadcast from two short wave
transmitters and one medium wave transmitter located in Sogun
le, near Lagos.
In late 1960, the Federal parliament amended the NBC
Ordinance to allow the sale of commercial advertisements. The
first ads ran on October 31, 1961, and were broadcast from
Lagos. By 1962 regional and provincial broadcasters began
selling ads to local businesses. The goal of allowing radio
advertisements was to help provide additional funding to NBC
stations beyond that received from the government. The Federal
parliament approved the creation of the Voice of Nigeria (VON)
external shortwave service in 1961. Broadcasting began on
January 1, 1961 from Lagos. Its initial operations were limited to
two hours a day to West Africa, but by 1963 VON had expanded
both its coverage and transmission times with the addition of
five additional transmitters.
In April 1961, with financial assistance from the Ford
Foundation and technical assistance from the British
Broadcasting Corporation, NBC began the National School
Broadcasting Service in April 1961. The NBC schools unit
broadcast lessons in various school subjects for primary and
secondary schools, as well as special programs for teacher
training colleges. The schools unit was based in Ibadan. The
NBC and the Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria
(BCNN) were merged together in 1978 to become the Federal
Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN). Medium wave
transmitters previously owned by the NBC were transferred to
the individual state governments where the transmitters were
located. At the same time, the states transferred short wave
transmitters to the FRCN. In 1996, VON installed three power
transmitters at its Ikorodu transmitter site, allowing worldwide
transmissions for the first time.
FRCN’s medium wave service, Radio Nigeria, has 25
stations located throughout the country and together with voice
of Nigeria, considers itself to have the largest radio network in
Africa. In 2007, FRCN began introducing FM transmitters in
some locations, and plans to begin upgrading and modernizing
its shortwave and medium wave transmitters in the coming
years. The FRCN is Nigeria’s publicly funded radio
broadcasting organization. Among its subsidiaries are the
domestic radio network known as Radio Nigeria and the Voice
of Nigeria International Radio Service.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
For a very long time, Nigerians have been indifferent to
family planning. In some cultures, people’s dignity, prestige
and power were reflected on the number of wives and children
they had. Nigerian government in the past was also
unconcerned about family planning as their basic amenities for
According to Nwankwo (1999, P.15). The major factor
resulting in rapid population growth is the fact that many
couples who would have wanted to limit the size of their family
were discouraged by religious or cultural constraints. There are
some religious beliefs that discourage any physical or material
interference with the laws of nature or God, as children are
believed to be gift from God.
Furthermore, culturally Nigerians often say that “it is only
God that knows the child that will succeed one”. This saying
was as a result of the precarious nature of the health facilities in
the past. Then infant mortality rate was high so, in order not to
lose the few children one has to measles, cholera, kwashiorkor
and other health hazards prevalent then they resulted to having
many children thereby throwing the social and economic
implication over board. This belief is still in existence till now.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research study is prompted by many factors. Some of
these are the continuing interest in and awareness of family
planning by Nigerians and also the establishment of more family
planning units by the government.
The study will also help to determine the extent of
knowledge of family planning among radio audience and
likewise their attitude towards this programme.
Also the research should help to ascertain the importance
of electronic media especially the radio as a media of bringing
about people’s awareness of innovations. It will give indications
of which medium is most effective in carrying out the
advertisement messages. The research will also determine the
various social, economic and cultural factors which may
influence people’s attitudes towards family planning.
As a result of this study, the researcher hopes to enlighten
the Nigerian public more on the benefits one stands to gain from
a well planned family. Such benefits includes: increase in
standard of living of the whole family; safeguarding of the good
health of mother and child and limiting the size of the family to
the one they can conveniently cater for. It will assist the
government to find possible ways of improving on the family
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to:
1. Identify the implications of escalating population on the
entire nation, both socially and economically.
2. Formulate population policy to check the situation by the
3. Find out the perception of the various family planning
advertisements on the radio by its audience.
The decision to use the radio is as result of the fact that it is a
strong and effective medium employed to make people be aware
of innovations and the programmes aired and it does not attract
any unit cost to the consumer. Once you posses a portable radio,
you can tune into any programme at anytime at extra charge.
What’s more, little effort is needed in getting access to the
radio, as consumers do not need to walk or drive about looking
for radio programmes. In addition, radio is omnipresent or
ubiquitous that is, it can be found everywhere meaning it has a
wider coverage than the other media as radio can easily be
afforded by an average citizen.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research study is set to find answers to the following
1. Does the Christian religious doctrines on procreation a
factor on the residents of Enugu Metropolis no to see
reason or understand what family planning is?
2. Does the culture and belief of the Ibos on marriage and
child bearing the cause of their difference on family
3. Is inadequate message content on family planning
advertisement the reason from the apathy of family
planning by the residents of Enugu Metropolis?
4. To what extent do advertisements on radio influence the
public in adopting family planning.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: The Christian religious doctrine on procreation is a factor
on the residents of Enugu Metropolis not to see reason or
understand what family planning is.
H0: The Christian religious doctrine on procreation is not a
factor on the residents of Enugu Metropolis not to see
reason or understand what family planning is.
H1: The culture and belief of the Ibos on marriage and child
bearing is the cause of their indifference on family planning
H0: The culture and belief of the Ibos on marriage and child
bearing is not the cause of their indifference on family
H1: Inadequate message content on family planning
advertisement is the reason for the apathy on family
planning by the residents of Enugu Metropolis.
H0: Inadequate message content on family planning
advertisement is not the reason for the apathy on family
planning by the residents of Enugu Metropolis.
H1: Advertisements on radios influence the public in adopting
H0: Advertisements on radios do not influence the public in
adopting family planning.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
– Media: The various means of mass communication
considered a whole, including television, radio, magazines
and newspapers, together with the people involved in their
– Mortality: The state of being human and not living
– Audience: The group of people who have gathered to
watch or listen to something e.g a play, concert, somebody
– Population: All the people living in a particular country,
area or place.
– Ubiquitous/Omnipresent: Seeming to be in all places.
– Agency: A business or an organization that provides a
particular service especially on behalf of other business or
– Family Planning: The use of birth control methods to
choose the number and timing of children born into a
– Evaluation: The act of considering or examining
something in order to judge its value quality, importance,
extent, or condition.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
– Media: Advertising channels such as TV, Radio,
Newspapers and Magazines.
– Mortality: The number of deaths within a particular
society and within a particular period of time.
– Agency: Establishments that serve advertisers through the
production and placement of advertisements in the media.
– Audience: Radio listeners
– Population: The totality of items or persons from whom
data necessary to study are collected.
– Ubiquitous/Omnipresent: Something that is very where.
– Family Planning: The use of contraception to control how
many children you have and when you have them.
Assumption of the study includes the following:
1. It assumed that the radio audience will now look up to
family planning advertisement programmes to show then a
better way of planning their families.
2. Secondly, the study will enable the people to know the
importance of radio advertisement.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
In the course of conducting this research some hindrances
were encountered. The first problem was finance. Since radio
audience are scattered across the country the researcher had to
go from place to place in order to get different views and
opinions. The traveling was capital intensive.
Some of the audience were conservatives and did want to
talk about family planning saying that children are not mean to
be countered. Also some were too busy to grant the researcher
audience and fill out the questionnaires.
But despite these problems, the researcher still managed to
gathers the required data and analyzed them accordingly
without altering the authenticity of the information and quality
of the research work.