The Project File Details
In the dawn of this millennium where communication technologies have taken new and intriguing dimensions, television programmes have taken communication even to a much fascinating plane. The television has made it possible to receive and send information to and from far flung places with the speed of lightening. This study which centres on the effects of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents at Awka metropolis examined the negative and positive effects of the television programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. Research methodology used in gathering data and information for the study is questionnaire, presentation of data analysis, testing of hypotheses along with result discussions. The findings revealed that there is a high level of success by the ABS television business link in impacting the desired change in Awka residents and that Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link. It recommended that the Government should ensure that ABS television reach those who outside the state so that they can also benefit from it
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4. Significance of the Study 8
1.5. Research Question 8
1.6. Research Hypotheses 9
1.7. Operational Definition of Terms 9
1.8. Assumptions of the Study 10
1.9. Delimitations of the Study 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Literature 12
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature 12
2.2.1 Review of Concepts 12
2.2.2 History of Television and its Development (African/Nigerian Experience 13
2.2.3 History of Anambra Broadcasting Service Television 15
2.2.4 Awka: An Overview 17
2.2.5 Effect of Television on Commercial Traders of Awka. 19
2.2.6 Audience Media Perception 21
2.2.7 How ABS Television Business Link Programme Changes Attitudes and Opinions 25
2.3 Theoretical Framework 32
2.4 Summary of Literature Review 33
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design 36
3.2. Area of the Study. 36
3.3. Population of the Study 36
3.4. Research Sampling Technique and Sample Size 37
3.5. Instrument for Data Collection 37
3.6. Validity of the Instrument 38
3.7. Method of Data Collection 38
3.8. Method of Data Analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data 40
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 48
4.3. Discussion of Findings 52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 54
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 55
Appendix I 59
Appendix II 60
1.3 Background of the Study
Most people accept the idea the media can influence people but the degree of that influence
as well as who is most impacted, how and why, have been the subject of great debate
among communication scholars for nearly a century. Media effects refer to the many ways
individuals and society maybe influenced by both news and entertainment. Mass media
including film, television, radio, newspapers, books magazines, websites, games and
music. Although in this study, the medium used is television.
Media effect has been studied by scholars in communication, psychology, sociology,
political, science, anthropology, and education among other fields. Many early
communication models designed to explain the process of message dissemination were
simple-one-way and linear (Shannon and weaver, 1994), positioning the medium or
message as the cause and the behavioural, emotional, or psychological response as the
effect (Bryant and Thompson, 2002, pp. 4-5). Morden conceptualization, however,
typically illustrate a two-way process that is more transactional or interactive in nature in
which the message or the medium affects the recipient(s) , but the audience, in turn,
influences and shapes the senders.
In the early part of the 20th century, concerns about political propaganda, manipulation by
the elite and the rising popularity of the electronic media led to the so called „cultivation‟
theory, which envisaged media message as strong drugs or potent weapon that could have
powerful effect on helpless audience ( LA swell, 1991; Lippmann, 1992). However, while
these theories explained some behaviour, they did not account for the different responses
individual may have to the same media source. In the 1950s and 60s, empirical research
began to uncover the moderating power of predispositions and peer group, concluding that
the media‟s impact was small often referred to as the „limited effect theory‟ (Klapper,
1960; Lazars Feld Bergeson, 1998 and Gaudet, 1998). In the 1970s and 80s, prominent
scholars begins to look more closely again at the media relationship to knowledge, opinion,
attitudes and level of violence, concluding that media effect could be significant in some
cases even if not all powerful.. Scholars also came to agree that some vulnerable groups
such as children may be more heavily influenced by media than others (Bryant and
Thompson, 2002; Mc Combs and Shaws 1994; Mc Luhan, 2000).
The above leads to the medium of communication (ABS television) that will be used to
influence the behaviour of Awka residents.
The word television (TV) is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots meaning „far sight‟.
Greek tele, far and Latin Visio, sight. From video, (vis-to-see, or to view in the first
person). It is widely used telecommunication used for transmitting and receiving moving
images, either monochromatic (black and white) or colour. Usually accompanied by sound.
Television has been regarded as a spontaneous, most effective media that can be used to
disseminate information with a lasting impression on the minds of the audience. Television
has made tremendous effort in broadcasting to the Awka residents because of its
audio/video ability which is appealing to the viewer.
Awka is a city in Anambra state Nigeria with so many commercial trades. Some of these
trades are ignorant of the best method of rendering services to the public. In Nigeria
especially in Awka, most ignorant men and women are unaware of the kind of implication
of the kind of business they engage themselves in, that is why the television from the
broadcast media was established to put such people in the right path.
With the creation of Anambra and Imo state in 1967, Anambra broadcasting service was
born. The federal government acquired the television area of the station in 1977, re
baptised it Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABC). The radio wing was left behind,
in1982, ABC radio 2 Onitsha was born.
Gov. Jim Nwobodo in 1981, established another television station. In 1985, the radio
merged with the television with appellation, ABS radio/ TV Enugu. In 1991, ABS could
boast of ABS radio 1 Enugu, ABS radio 2 Onitsha, ABS radio 3 FM Enugu, ABS TV
channel 5-0 Enugu and ABS channel 2-7 Onitsha.
With the creation of the new AnambraEnugu states in 1991, and the subsequent
disengagement of the staff on March 16, 1992, the Anambra broadcasting service (RITV)
After the state creation, the first movement was to Ontisha-4 park road- the location of our
AM station. From Onitsha, the headquarters moved to St. Paul‟s university college Awka,
in January, 1993. The movement continued to party house, okpuno in January 1994.
However, Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) moved to its permanent site on the
Enugu/Onitsha expressway in Awka in January, 2002.
There are three other operational areas:
The broadcasting house at 4 park road, Onitsha.
The television station at Awada.
The booster station at Enugwu-Ukwu.
Anambra broadcasting service transmits on the following frequencies;
Television- ABS TV channel 27 Onitsha, ABS TV channel 24 Awka.
With two television and two radio stations, both at Onitsha and Awka, ABS can boast of
wide coverage reaching out to neighbouring states e.g. Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Imo and
Even with Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) it is not certain the kind of impact it has
on these commercial traders. For instance, Janis and Hovland (1959) discussed various
factors associated with „persuasive‟ and suggested that „persuasive‟ effects might depend,
amongst other things, on the prestige of the source, or on the significance of the message
for the receiver, or on the attitude of the receiver to the source.
Also Kelman (1961) comes closer to this in his analysis of social influence, suggesting that
three main processes might be involved in opinion change. One of these „compliance‟
refers to the acceptance of influence in the expectation of some reward or to avoid
punishment „identification‟, occurs when an individual wishes to be more like the source
and hence imitates or adopt behaviour accordingly. A third „internalization‟, is intended to
describe influence guided by the receiver‟s own pre-existing needs and values.
The television could affect these traders positively or negatively. Therefore, for positive
result, it is the job of the media houses to give well programmed and packaged information
to the audience (commercial consumers and he consumer at large). These commercial
activities of Awka residents are their major means of survival. So the commercial
developmental programmes should be well broadcasted so that it will foster the spirit of
hard work and high productivity with the view of arising creativity and inquisitiveness in
Many researcher adopt functional approach to the study of communication process from
the perception of the receiver rather than the sender (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003; 407).
These researchers base their investigation on the „users and gratification‟. Theory of media
effect which posits that audience do not take media messages for granted (Tsao and Sibley,
2004: 788-87) but is at least.
As active as the sender (Fiske, 1990: 151). Fiske Firther argues that the message is what
the audience make of it and not what the sender intends.
For a successful programme, „programming‟ is needed. Programming and determine where
to broadcast such material. Programming means determining the kind of programme to
make, the belt or slot in which to bring them out, the target audience, the ratio or mix of
other programme types in relations to the ones produced, the general objectives of each
In packaging a potent programme, the producer should endeavour to focus more on how
the service of the broadcast media are of benefit to the audience rather than concentrating
on the product features.
Media houses in Awka like Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) has its functions steamed
from the understanding that it is the source from which the Awka residents choose what
commercial trades suit them best and method of doing the business.
Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that the effect of the television has on the Awka
resident is powerful but sometime ineffective because of the location of some of the
commercial traders. A recent study conducted show that some commercial traders
especially in the rural areas do not have television sets to watch „ABS business television
link programme „while other prefer to get ideas for their trade themselves without the help
of information from television.
The adoption of the „modus operandi‟ (mode of operation) by the three commercial traders
can be seen in the method they use in approaching their business. One great difficulty for
researcher is how to measure media effect. Television consumption may affect a person‟s
thought, emotions or behaviour in ways could be direct or indirect, immediate or delayed,
fleeting or lasting. It is impossible for scientist to control for all the mediating factors from
levels of television consumption to demographics such as age, race, and socio-economic
status, to harder to measure variables like environment, upbringing, values and previous
It is envisage that at the end of this study the outcome in formulating and packaging of
television programmes for commercial traders, business men and women etc. it will give
them the knowledge on the effect of ABS television business link programme on their
commercial activities. All above, the study will increase existing and good talk shows on
how to develop the commercial activity of Awka residents.
1.4 Statement of Research Problem
There has been a concerted effort by the Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) to create a
positive impact on the Awka residents concerning their commercial activities for instance,
the Awka television station, „Anambra Broadcasting Service‟ has used so many method to
increase the growth of the commercial activities of Awka residents. These Awka residents
include the sellers and the consumers of the goods and services. This medium
communication (television) helps these people positively by giving them the right feel
about a business or commercial activity of Awka.
Broadcasting programming is a problem in a broadcasting media i.e. Television.
According to Olugboji (1997), little attention is paid to producing cultural relevant local
programmes that could contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. The
television station strives to give broadcasting to Awka residents on what suits them best in
terms of the commercial activities.
In view of the effectiveness of television programmes in bringing knowledge and changes
to Awka residents, it became evident to discuss its short comings which is to say that in
spite of all the efforts made by the television station, it is not known for certain if this
medium of communication is making an impact on people‟s lives positively.
Since research is systematic search for knowledge the primary aim of this study is to find
solution to the envisaged problem of Awka traders. This is because proper identification to
a problem directs the study.
1.5 Objectives of the Study
Needless stressing that everything we do is aimed at achieving some objectives. It is very
true and applicable in this study.
In order to achieve the goals, the Awka residents should be well informed and motivated
Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) should primarily be:
1. To investigate the extent or level of successes business link programme have
impacted on the commercial traders in Awka metropolis.
2. To monitor trends and development in production process with a view to arousing
creativity and inquisitiveness in the people of Awka or the Awka residents.
3. To review business link programme impact on Awka residents including the traders
and consumer i.e. the positive and negative effect on the people.
4. To know the capacity at which business link programmes affects the Awka
residents, whether it attracts large audience or influence opinion and behaviour.
5. To foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of raising the
quality of the life of the people.
1.6 Significance of the Study
In this study, it is imperative to know the significance.
The Awka commercial traders and consumer will benefit immensely from the research
study in terms of gaining knowledge on how best to run their business and make gain.
The research study will be an added information material for other electronic media
researchers. The research study will also make room for developmental programmes
and can create employment to the general public because they have been enlightened.
It will make for increase in quality of programme production on how to develop ones
1.7 Research Questions
1. To what level of success does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business
link programme impact the desired change in Awka resident/ traders?
2. Do Awka residents expose themselves to Anambra Broadcasting Service television
business link programme?
3. How do Awka commercial traders react to the Anambra Broadcasting Services
4. How does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme
influence Awka residents commercially?
1.8 Research Hypotheses
H0: There is low level of success by the ABS television business link programme in
impacting the desired change in Awka residents/traders.
H1: There is high level of success by the ABS television business link programme in
impacting the desired change in Awka resident/traders.
H0: The Awka residents do not expose themselves to ABS television business link
H2: The Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link
H0: The Awka commercial traders react negatively to ABS television business link
H3: The Awka commercial traders react positively to ABS television business link
H0: The less influence the ABS television business link programme has on Awka
H4: The more influence the ABS television business link has Awka resident
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms.
1. Impact: the impact of this study refers to any of the consequences of ABS
television business link programme operation whether intended or not and its
effectiveness in term of its capacity to achieve given objectives, whether this be
attracting large audience or influencing opinions and behaviour or influencing
opinions and behaviour.
2. Abs Television: in this study the ABS television which is a station owned by
Anambra state government is a major contributor to direct change of individual
opinion, attributes or behaviour or to be a direct cause of crime aggression or other
disapproved social phenomena.
3. Commercial Activities: in this study, the commercial activity of Awka resident
involves their means of livelihood. The kind of trade they do and are known for.
4. Business Link Programme: in this study, business link programme is a thirty
minute programme that is aired on ABS television. It tries to promote small and
medium scale business by going to their business places to interview them and then
let the city know about their business.
5. Awka Residents: these Awka residents are to be studied in this research work.
There are over a million people within Awka metropolis.
1.10 Assumptions of the Study
In assuming the study, the likely are assumed and the action to take or how to go about
such problem is assumed.
1. The television has been assumed to be the best medium to affect or influence the
Awka residents. It is seen as the best that can be used to foster the spirit of hard work
and productivity with the view of raising the quality of the people in terms of their
2. It has been assumed that effectiveness of business link programme depends on the
presentation of business link i.e. if the programme is well packaged, if the times of
the programme tallies with the time commercial traders are at home and if the
presentation is perfect.
3. It is also assumed that the impact of business link programme on the commercial
activities of Awka residents is positive but has its short comings too. These positive
impact and shortcoming are studied to get the kind of effects that can influence the
1.11 Delimitations of the Study
The scope of this study boarders on the impact of ABS television business link programme
on the commercial activities of Awka residents. It borders on the reaction of the residents
to the programme.
This study due to financial constraints did not attempt going beyond Awka for its findings.
In essence, this study covers only Awka residents. No consideration was given to other
parts of Anambra states. There are some materials which one could not lay hands on
during the research due to lack of time.
These factors were constraints to researcher which affected or influenced the researchers
finding and recommendations in some way.