# A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITED DISEASE (CASE STUDY OF THE FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE UMUAHIA (F.M.C) FROM 1995 – 2004)

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• Name: A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITED DISEASE (CASE STUDY OF THE FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE UMUAHIA (F.M.C) FROM 1995 – 2004)
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## ABSTRACT

The entire project work/study talks about the full meaning of the STDS.  The causes of the sexually transmitted diseases were found out to be virus and bacteria which can be transmitted from one person to another predominantly through sexual contact.  The scope of the study was also special and federal medical center Umuahia (FMC) was used as a case study.  One of the studies carried out by Dr. A.U. Mbanuso at the Federal Medical center Umuahia 1990 – 1993.  His result showed that the commest and most ducally sexual transmitted disease was HIV/AIDS and Syphilis.

Furthermore, from the designed questionnaire we found out that many people have become aware of the extend of STDS.  For the data collection used was a secondary data.  The population size in this reported cases of the sexually transmitted diseases under study from 1995 – 2004 the result after study will be used to generalize for the entire population.

The major statistical model employed in the analysis of the data collection was chi-square which was used to the age group and sex.  The test hypothesis for the age group shows the X2 cal > X2 tab.  Therefore we reject H0: and conclude that the client rate is not dependent of the age.  There the test of hypothesis for the sex group shows that X2 cul > X2 tab.  Therefore, we reject H0: and conclude that the sexually transmitted diseases under study are not dependent of sex.

## 1.1     Statement of the Problem

1.2     Purpose of the Study

1.3     Aims and Objectives

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Scope and Limitations

1.6     The Hypothesis

1.7     Definition of Terms

## 2.1     Types of Stds

2.2     Causes of Stds

2.3     Mode of Transmission

2.4     Signa Nd Symptoms of Stds

2.5     Effect/Consequences of Stds

2.6     Treatment of Stds

2.7     Prevention and Control of Stds

### CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Method of Data Collection and Sources of Data

## CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sexually transmitted diseases, which is popularly known as STDS, and its effect is now the talk of the day, town, and world wide, even in Nigeria.  This disease is a very strong disease that is caused by virus.  This virus     enters the body through many means such as sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, parental transmission.  The main work of this virus is to weaken the body mechanism known as Lymphocyte (White blood cell) making it possible for any disease which enters the body to attack even more them expected.  Both the developed and the undeveloped countries of the world, it is a great problem medically their incidence are steady rising. From the available statistical data the evidence have been showing alarming rate of sexually transmitted diseases every day as mankind gets more civilized.  The sexually transmitted diseases can be categorized into three: the first category are referred to as the first category are referred to as the first generation, these are gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid.  The second generation includes hympho granuloma venereum and granuloma ingunale.  The third generation which is Aids  (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). These sexually transmitted disease have become a major public health problem to most countries of the world, including Nigeria on the account of their frequency, their impact on maternal and infant health and their special consequences as well as their economic cost in terms of health expenditure and cost of productivity.  It has a serious effect on pregnancy, and new borns are seriously affected which may lead to miscarriage, failure of development of new baby, blindness congenital defects etc.   The implication in woman such as pekvic inflammatory disease ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic ill health are caused by sexual transmitted diseases where the incidence of undiagnosed or poor treated cases is very high.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The disease, sexually transmitted disease (STDS) is an old strong disease that was discovered before the amalgamation of Nigeria in the year 1914 by a great medical scientist known as lordchester field, in the year 1985.  this disease has killed very many paple, yet, as at that time people doesn’t believe it, not until a good number of research work was carried out in the laboratory and evidence showed that it is a communicable disease that can be contracted from one person to another through  predominantly sexual contact; such as gonorrhea, syphilis enters the body veins through blood and weakens or makes the white blood cell known as lymphocyte inactive to attack the disease of the sexual transmitted disease and this deadly disease will dry the victim to the extent that you will be able to count the bones and extent that you will be able to count the bones and ribs of the patient.  But some people are still doubting the existence of the deadly disease STDS while statistical data table shows that 7,548 people was a victim within the year of 1985 to 1990.  But the recent data collected shows that 17,277 people were infected as it was recorded at the Federal Medical Centre Umuahia.  In addition, the above collected data will help the masses to reduce the rate of sexual act and sexual promiscuity.  The federal ministry of health warns that total abstinence and mutual fidelity remains the best protective measure for or against sexually  transmitted disease (STDS)  such as  gonorrhea, syphilis etc.  That is why the federal government supported the introduction of sex education and the use of condom as a program in most of our media, such as newspaper, radio, television etc.  In order to educate the poor masses on the subject matter and how to avoid contacting the deadly disease (STDS).

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The rapid spreading of these deadly diseases (STDS) does not mean that both the internal and external bodies’ even corporate organizations are not working to remedy the issue.  But we should not unemphasize the problem facing the efforts. Some of this problems includes inadequate central surveillance system from which all of us will be getting the information that we carry and reply in our program, because what we get now in Nigeria is information that is fragment not reconcilable.  Even when there is seeming different, there are not other third sources of reference to cross check.  Here the problem of finance contributed to the collapse of the efforts been made.  Take for instance, the latest inhibitors introduced by Hoffmann – LaRoche of the Switzerland Eortovase and Viracept cannot be obtained by poor countries like Nigeria.

We know that it will sound unbelievable even at the moment to some people mainly the youths of today that kept adamant on the warnings and dangers of being a prostitute, a homosexual, a Hetero Sexual and equally having unprotected sexual intercourse.  All that the World Health Organization (WHO) had warned that partners should be truthful to themselves and take preventive measures.

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1. To know how far people have known about existence of the sexually transmitted disease.
2. To know whether the rate at which male are infected is the same at which the females are infected.
• To recommend preventive measures on how to avoid contacting the sexually transmitted diseases and give appropriate treatment to avoid rapid spread of the deadly disease.
1. To specify the age group that is mostly affected.
2. Finally, the objective of this study is in picking the types of sexually transmitted diseases under study one by one and uses statistical methods predicting what their incidence rate will be in the year 2005 and 2006.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has revealed that the awareness of the existence of sexual transmitted disease.  Through this study, their causes, sources and mode of transmission have been have been highlighted.  Having known all these a greater result can be achieved by embarking on the program against sexually transmitted disease, such as making use of condom as one of the preventive measures and total abstinence as another measure.  Another important significance is that, the health standard of the people is improved, while the death effect and other consequences of sexually transmitted diseases are minimized by profiling good medical attention and the use of skilled practitioners.

Finally, by achieving all these goals, we can have a good social economic planning for the present and future generation.

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMC) is my scope of study.  It has ten wards (10) two medical ward on each for male and female, two surgical wards one each for male and female, two surgical wards one each for male and female, maternity wards with eighty (80) beds, one ward with forty (40) beds for booked patients while the other is for unbooked patients. Other are the pediatrics ward with twenty (20) beds and a gynecological ward with fourty (40) beds.  But my area of concentration is based on the steadily increase of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDS).  And we are taking a more look at the four varieties of sexually transmitted diseases (STDS).  And we are taking a more look at the four varieties of sexually transmitted disease (STDS) such as gonorrhea, syphilis, arthritis and Aids.  This study is faced with a lot of limitations and some problems encountered din the project research must not be overlooked.  Some problems as: problem of finance, a lot of expense was made on the process of collecting the data.  Time factor is another problem that delays the collection of data.

In addition, the duplication of the data and the production of this project work also included.  On this note I was to study records from the year 1995 – 2002.  This further more confined to the statistical analysis only, which has to do with the incidence rate of the sexually transmitted disease under study as arranged or grouped into sex, age groups and years.  There will also be some forecast or production of the type of sexually transmitted disease under study in a specifically year to come.

1.5     SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The Federal      Medical Centre Umuahia (FMC) is my scope of study.   It has ten wards (10) two medical wards (2) on each for male and female, two surgical wards (2) one each for male and female etc.  But my area of concentration is based on the steady increase of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) such as Gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, Arthritis.  This study is faced with a lot of limitations and some problems encountered in the project research must not be overlooked.  Some problems are

1. Problem of finance
2. Time factor while delays the collection of data

1.6     FOR THE HYPOTHESIS

1. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference between age group. This means that the incident rate of age group is the same.  The alternative hypothesis is that the incident rate of age group differ which reconcile that the incident rate is not he same.
2. The null hypothesis is also used for the incident rate sex that means that there is no difference between incident rate of sex then. The alternative hypothesis is that the incident rate of sex is differ which states that the incident rate of sex is not the same.

1.7     ASSUMPTIONS

1. That is an existence of sexually transmitted disease (STDS) virus
2. Attempts on how to prevent or cure the sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) have been made.
• Maximum cooperation is needed from all and sundry.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. STDS: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
2. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

iii.      HIV:           Human Immunodeficiency Virus

1. VIRUS: Any living thing that is smaller than

bacteria, that causes the spread of infections disease.  It can only be seen with the use of microscope.

1. SEROLOGICAL TEST FOR HIV: Blood test

that allows the presence of anti bodies to HIV in the body to be dictated.

ABORTION:        Removal   of unwanted child out of her

mothers’ womb

IMPOTENCY:     Inability of a man to impregnate a

woman due to the destruction of the manhood by sexually transmitted disease(s).

PRE – MARITAL SEX: Sex before marriage

RACE:        Different type of people living in the world

INFERTILITY:    Inability to bear a child or children.

LYPHOCYTE:     A group of white blood cells that helps to

ANTI-BODY:      This is an organism that is not a part of

the body but was being introduced to that body

PERINATAL:      This simply means mother

HOMO-SEXUALITY:   This is sexual intercourse between

persons of the same sex e.g male to male.

LESBIANISM:     Sexual intercourse between people of

the same sex eg female to female

HETERO SEXUALITY:         This is a sexual intercourse

between persons of opposite sex, example female to male.

INFECTION:       An inversion of the body (entry) of a

disease causing organism

CONDOM:           A preservative or “rubber” sheath

(usually made of latex) used to cover the penis or virgin by women during sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy or to protect against disease.

WHO:         WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION

MOD OF TRANSMISSION: This is simply the way at

which a disease or disease can be transferred over from a carrier to a non carrier.