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The Project File Details
This study focuses on isolating and identifying bacterial contaminants from 4 selected sachet water sold in Awka metropolis, Anambra State, and to determine effects of these microbes on the quality of the selected sachet water. The samples were purchased from 3 respective areas Eke- Awka, Gauze pharmaceuticals and Science village, Temporary site and school premises. The pour plate method was carried out using the following bacteriological media MaConKey agar, Eosin Methylene Blue and Nutrient agar plate count test was used to determine the total of bacteria present in the water sample. The isolates were characterized by Gram staining and various other biochemical tests, motility test, catalase test, coagulase test, indole test, oxidase test and Antibiotic sensitivity test. Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out on the isolates to determine how sensitive the isolates were to the respective drugs. The bacteria were found to be highly susceptible to the drugs. The bacterium identified is Bacillus sp.
Title page i
Approval page iii
Table of Contents vii
Microbial Water Quality 9
Health Impact 10
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Colonial Morphology 17
Antimicrobial Sensitivity 20
Good quality water is odourless, colourless, tasteless and free from faecal pollution (Ezeugwunne, 2009). A reliable supply of clean wholesome water is essential in a bid in promoting healthy living among the inhabitants of a defined geographical region (Mustapha, 1991). Water is readily available and affordable, but there are concern about its purity. The integrity of the hygienic environmental and conditions where the majority of the water in sachets are produced have been questioned. Apart from environmental contaminants, contamination from improper vendor handling also poses threats to the health of the ignorant consumers who drink often time without any proper cleaning of the sachets. Previous studies have identified handling as the source of infection in food and waterborne diseases in several countries (Dada, 2009).
Water is essential to sustain life and satisfactory (adequate, safe and accessible) supply must be available. Improving access to safe drinking water can result in tangible benefits to health. The primary purpose of the guidelines for drinking water quality is the protection of public health. Previous studies on sachet water phenomenon in Nigeria have shown that factors responsible for its contamination range from sharp practices, poor hygiene of vendors, polluted environment and non-adherence to WHO/NAFDAC regulations.
The National Agency for food and drugs administration and control (NAFDAC) is mandated to enforce compliance with internationally defined drinking water guidelines, but regulation of the packaged water industry aimed at good quality assurance has remained a challenge to the agency. (CAMON, 2007). To control this menace of contaminated water in sachets, NAFDAC declared a possible gradual nationwide ban on sachet water to allow manufacturers of sachet water to start winding down or change to bottle packaging. Consequently water borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid often have their epidemic the dry season .Typhoid remains a great socio economic problem in developing countries. Proliferation of intestine is associated with high mortality with wound infection occurring in 50-75% of survivors (Archimpong, 1976). Unsafe water is a global public health treat, placing at risk for a host of diarrhoea diseases (Huges and Koplan 2005). For children in this age group, diarrhoea disease accounted for ranking third among causes of death, after neonatal causes and acute respiration infections (WHO, 2005). To attain a safe water supply to various communities, an understanding of water that is microbiologically and chemically certified is therefore imperative.
Above all, to ensure that microbiological characteristic of drinking water is safe for human consumption, the Nigeria based National Agency for food and drugs administration control (NAFDAC) in association with the World Health organisation (WHO), recommended that potable water for human consumption should not contain any microorganism that is known to be pathogenic and the coliform number per 100ml of water must be zero (WHO, 1984).
Microbiological contamination of water has long been a concern to the public. This is a concern in increasing due to outbreak of coliform bacteria. Coliforms are not a single type of bacteria but a group of bacteria that includes Klebsiella species, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella species. Coliform organisms are not necessary pathogens and are rarely found in bottle water. They serve as an indicator of sanitation or possible contamination. Ensuring the availability of safe good quality drinking water is still a problem in Nigeria and other parts of the world. The associated health risks from the consumption of unsafe drinking water vary throughout the world depending on the chemical or microbiological contaminants present in the environs. Waterborne disease scan be deadly especially in children. Safe drinking water can be defined as having acceptable quality in terms of its physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters so that it can be safely used for drinking and cooking.
The absence of safe drinking water leads to a multitude of diseases (termed water borne diseases) including cholera, bacillary dysentery, hepatitis, polio, schistosomiasis, among others with cholera causing about 50% of all diarrheal cases. To attain a safe water supply to various communities, an understanding of water that is microbiologically and chemically certified is therefore imperative. Above all, to ensure that the microbiological characteristic of drinking water is safe for human consumption, the Nigeria based National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration Control (NAFDAC) in association with the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended that potable water for human consumption should not contain any microorganism that is known to be pathogenic and the coliform number per 100 ml of water must be zero (WHO, 1984).
Considering the high patronage of sachet water in the area of study.
The aim of this study is to qualitatively identify bacteria species from selected sachet water sold in Awka and to determine the health and socio economic implication of sachet water sold in Awka, Anambra state.