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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a veritable tool to support the activities of governmental institutions and agencies with the objectives of delivering effective service and information in a more convenient, citizen centre way and to curb corrupt practices. The objectives of this study is to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on local government administration in Nigeria with particular reference to some selected local government areas in Lagos state.
The study adopted survey design. The study population was the twenty (20) local governments in Lagos State. Six (6) local government areas were selected using purposive sampling technique being the first local governments where ICT was introduced Ikeja, Alimosho, Oshodi-Isolo, Ojo, AmuwoOdofin and Badagry. From the total population of three thousand two hundred and sixty seven (3,267) staff of Ikeja, Alimosho, Oshodi-Isolo, Ojo, Amuwo Odofin and Badagry, the sample of 653 respondents (111,113,109,109, 107and 104 respectively) with 20% of total population. Primary and secondary data was used. Primary data included: structured and unstructured questionnaires and interview while secondary data include: published journals, text books, newspapers, magazines and internet materials.The questionnaire was self-administered to the staff of local governmentsand in depth interview was also conducted in the six local government areas with five (5) principal officials (Council Manager, Chairman, Secretary, ICT Director and Finance Director). Simple percentage and Bar Chart method was used to analyzed and interpret the data while Ch-Square and correlation analysis were used to test the hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance.
The finding revealed that Information and Communication Technology (ICT)increases employee’s performance in the six local government areas (r=0.166, p<0.5). There is a positive relationship between the use of ICT and transparency and accountability in the six local government areas. Also, the use of ICT enhance effective service delivery in the six local governments. (X2 =37.026 > X2t 9.488, df = 0.05)
The study concluded by recommending among others that there is need to redefine the role of local governments in the state so as to strengthen its capacity to manage effective change of complexity. Therefore, the study recommends that there is need to build managerial capacity in the areas of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) that will enhance effective service delivery in the Local government system.
Keywords: Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Local government, Institutions, Public Service delivery, Citizens.
Word Count: 378
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures xi
List of Appendices xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1, 2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.5 Hypotheses 5
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 7
1.9 Organization of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Conceptual Analysis 10
2.2 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 10
2.3Local Government Administration 14
2.4ICT and LG Administration in Nigeria: The NEXUS 17
2.4.1 ICT as A Tool for Effective LG Administration
2.4.2 ICT as Tool for Transparency and Accountability in LG Administration In
2.4.3 ICT to LG in Other Countries of the World 25
2.5 National ICT Policy 28
2.5.1 The Impact of Nigerian National Policy for ICT on LG Administration 30
2.6 Lagos State ICT Policy 32
2.6.1 Lagos State Govt ICT Policy and LG Administration 34
2.7 Theoretical Framework 38
2.7.1 Socio-Technical Theory 38
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 40
3.1 Research Design 40
3.2 Population 40
3.3 Sample size and sampling Technique 40
3.4 Sources of Data 41
3.5 Instrumentation 44
3.5 Reliability and Validity of Instrument 46
3.6 Method of Data Collection 46
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS
AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction 48
4.1 Classification and Characteristics of Respondents 48
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data According to Research Questions 54
4.3 Data Presentation And Analysis According to Test of Hypotheses 74
4.3.1 Testing of Hypothesis One 75
4.3.2 Testing of Hypothesis Two 77
4.3.3 Testing of Hypothesis Three 78
4.4 Discussion of Findings 79
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
5.0 Introduction 87
5.1 Summary 87
5.2 Conclusion 88
5.3 Recommendations 89
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 90
LIST OF TABLES
2,6.1 Lagos State Government ICT Policy 33
3,4.1 Ikeja Local Government 41
3.4.2 Alimosho Local Government 42
3.4.3 Oshodi-Isolo Local Government 42
3.4.4 Ojo Local Government 43
3.4.5 Amuwo-Odofin Local Government 43
3.4.6 Badagry Local Government 44
4.1 Classification and Characteristics of Respondents
1 Respondents by Gender Distribution 48
2 Respondents by Age Distribution 49
3 Respondents by Marital Status 50
4 Respondents by educational Background 51
5 Respondents by Years of Employment 52
6 ICT has Help in Quick Transmission of Information in LG Admin 54
7 Modern Security Devices Increases Employees Performance in LG 55
8 Electronically Documentation of Reports and Information has Help in
Easy Access, Retrieve and Dissemination of Information in LG 56
9 ICT has Help to Reduce Overhead Cost of Operation in LG Admin 57
10 Civil Service can Work More Due to Utilization of Computer in the LG 58
11 ICT has not Aided LG in Revenue Generation 59
12 Internet Facilities has Help in Quick and Better Service Delivery 60
13 Issuing of Receipts and Processing of Document Electronically is
Prompt and Effective 61
14 Administrative Sluggishness and Excessive Bureaucracy are Reduced
Through the Use of e-Administrative 62
15 Customers Crowd in the Office has Decreased due to ICT 63
16 Service Provided is Prompt and Effective to the use of Internet
17 e-Payment has Helped in Reducing Fraud and Ensuring Transparency
and Accountability 65
18 Receipts and Payments are done Electronically 66
19 Easy Access to Government Information by the Populace has helped
in Ensuring Accountability and Transparency in the LG 67
20 Introduction of ICT has reduce Ghost Workers in the LG 68
21 e-Governance has Helped to ensure Fairness and Accountability in LG 69
22 Internal Revenue Generation Before the Adoption of ICT in Lagos State 70
23 Staff Strength of the Six LGAs Before and After the Adoption of ICT 72
4.3.1 Testing Of Hypotheses
1 Chi Square Extract 75
2 Pearson Moment Correlation Extract 77
3 Chi Square Extract 78
LIST OF FIGURES
1 Bar Chart Depicting Respondent Gender Distribution 49
2 Bar Chart Depicting Respondents Age Distribution 50
3 Bar Chart Depicting Respondents by Marital Status 51
4 Bar Chart Depicting Respondents by Educational Background 52
5 Bar Chart Depicting Respondents Length of Service 53
6 Bar Chart Depicting ICT and Transmission of Information in Local
7 Bar Chart Showing Modern Security devices increases employee
performance in local government 55
8 Bar Chart Depicting Effectiveness of Electronic documentation in
access, retrieve and dissemination of information at the local government level 57
9 Bar chart Depicting ICTs in reducing overhead cost in Local
government Administration 58
10 Bar Chart Depicting Civil Service and the utilization of ICT 59
11 Bar Chart Depicting ICT and Local government in Revenue generation 60
12 Bar Chart Depicting Internet facilities has helped in quick and better service
13 Bar Chart Depicting issuing of Receipts and Processing of documents
electronically is prompt and effective 62
14 Bar Chart Depicting Administrative Sluggishness and Excessive Bureaucracy
are Reduced Through the Use of e-Administrative 63
15 Bar Chart Depicting Customers Crowd in the Office Has Decreased Due to the
Use of ICT 64
16 Bar Chart Depicting Service Provided and the Use of internet Facilities in
Local Government 65
17 Bar Chart Depicting e-payment Ensuring Transparency and Accountability 66
18 Bar Chart Depicting Receipt Payment and Local Government 67
19 Bar Chart Depicting Easy Access to Government Information and Accountability
and Transparency in Local Government 68
20 Bar Chart Depicting ICT and Ghost Workers in Local Government 69
21 Bar Chart Depicting e-governance and Procedure Fairness and
Accountability in Local government 70
22 Bar Chart depicting the Difference Between Internally Generated Revenue
Before and After the Introduction of ICT 71
LIST OF APPENDICES
I Informed Consent Form 99
II In-Depth Interview Guide 100
III Questionnaire 101
1.1 Background to the Study
David is the biblical man for all seasons, the most complex and many-sided human character in the bible. He was variously shepherd, fugitive, politician, king, poet, musician, prophet, warrior and so many attributes. The role in which David is best known to the Western imagination is that of ‘boy hero and giant killer’. When he killed Goliath, he became an instant public hero, a civic liberator providing possible inspiration for fictional heroes, following in wake from Beowulf to Jack of the beanstalk (1Samuel17: 1-58). This victory by the boy David can be liken to the introduction of Information CommunicationTechnology in curbing or minimizing corruption and so many social vices in both private and public services.
The current use of the internet, digital connectivity, the explosion and use of e-commerce and e-business models to enhance efficiency in the private sector is pressuring the public sector to rethink hierarchical, bureaucratic organizational models (Ndou, 2004:30-46). Moreover, the increasing expectation of Nigerians and the pressured effective service delivery of the private sector are pressing the bureaucracy to be time responsive. As a result, the 21st century has experienced a shift in the role of government. Unlike before, the government’s role has been redefined to empower rather than serve the customer, shift from hierarchy to teamwork and participation, and be mission-oriented and customer-focused, and to enhance with prevention rather than cure (Osborne&Gaebler, 1992).
In the early 1980s, the need to reform the bureaucracy became imperative all over the globe. Consequently, the governments of developed and developing countries are faced with the challenge of transformation and the need to modernize administrative practices and management systems (Tapscott, 1996:60-66). In this regard, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a tool to support the work of governmental institutions and agencies with the objectives of delivering public services and information in a more convenient, citizen-centric way and to curb corrupt practices. In other words, Information and Communication can be an effective tool to ensure increased accessibility, inclusivity and flexibility of government services.
The Federal Government of Nigeria has recognized the importance of ICT for making service delivery prompt and effective. It has introduced ICT tools such as online payment of salaries and wages, accounting package, advertisement of vacancies and so on in different public offices. As a matter of fact, when the National Information Technology Policy was approved to guide the ICT project in Nigeria, this was followed by the enactment of the National Information Technology Development Agency Act 2007, which provided the legal platform for the creation of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA).
Lagos State Government in an effort to align with the Federal Government NITDA policy, decided to have strategic partnership between herself and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) through State Partnership for Accountability, Responsiveness and Capacity (SPARC) program and related bilateral and multilateral aid which aims at bringing about reform that will position Lagos State in terms of its vision of Lagos becoming a mega city with world class ICT infrastructure, comparable to that of any other mega city in the world. Lagos State Government recognizes the necessity for competence in ICT. Therefore, in May, 2011 it Established Public Service Management ICT subgroup to guide the conception, design and implementation, applicable, development of ICT in the state .The Lagos State Government ICT Policy according to the state website design assured that “The relationships between people, process and technology is effectively managed by the singular most important document – the Policy which ensures business process alignment between the different aspects of any organization. An ICT Policy for Lagos State is therefore the most important outstanding document that will effectively guide how to manage ICT infrastructure and continuously align the acquisition and use of ICT resources with the States strategy. The policy document will define the course or method of action to guide and determine present and future decisions. If well implemented, the ICT Policy will ensure the establishment of guidelines and procedures for the acquisition, deployment, usage, and retirement of Information and Communication Technology resources in Lagos State government Ministries, Department and Agencies. It will also ensure the safety and security of Information Communication Technology resources within the State government from both internal and external threats” (Lagos ICT, 2011).
It should be noted that this ICT policy document was produced in collaboration with input from the Public Service Management ICT subgroup which will help in establishing and strengthening good governance within the LASG and in turn ensure the provision of a world class ICT solution benchmarked against International best practices. The policy document will be undergoing an approval process which is led by strategic Ministries, Department and Agencies, and when finally approved and put in place will help to structure, streamline and provide the needed rules and framework for the Lagos Stage Government. In addition to the ICT policy document, an ICT Acceptable User policy and Information Security Policy document were also produced (Lagos ICT, 2011).
The invaluable role of local government in Lagos State with its mandate to bring development nearer to the people has become a relevant discourse of our time. The United Nations (2009) and Nassanga (2006) explore the power of Information and Communication Technology in achieving this statutory role of local government. In Nigeria, there are several initiatives geared at accelerating development via the technological platform. Overcoming the challenges of transformation of administrative bodies as service deliverers to the citizens is only possible with proper application of Information and CommunicationTechnology(ICT) which allows citizens to access various electronic services. Hence, citizens are able to publicly express their opinion about the functioning of local government and proper conducting of public affairs, thus increasing the role of grass roots administration as a service oriented towards citizens. With these assumed benefits of Information and Communication Technology policy by LSG as enumerated above, this research work attempts to carefully examine the impact of ICT in Alimosho,Amuwo-Odofin, Badagry, Ikeja, Ojo and Oshodi-Isololocal government areas of the state.
It is imperative at this juncture to note that there is uniformity of function and responsibility for all the local governments throughout the Nigeria federation as enshrined in the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The functions are made up of mandatory for which local governments have full responsibility, those which they sharing functions with higher levels of government and those functions that the state or federal government can from time to time assign to local authority (Constitution, 1999).
In the FourthSchedule of 1999 Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the functions of local governments are spelt out to include provision of nursery, primary and adult education, administration of maternity centres, dispensaries and leprosy clinics and health centres, lighting and drainage, support for arts and culture, control of pollution, public housing programmese.t.c
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The recent development in information and communication technology provides opportunities for bridging the gap between the government and the citizens. ICT provide avenue for effective interaction between the government and citizens at local levels. It also serves as a tool for eliminating barriers confronting citizens’ participation in governance at local level.
The Lagos State government effort in implementing ICT across the entire state including local government areas should be commended as it is an effort in the right direction. However, for the projects and processes to be effective and efficient there is need for appropriate coordination and streamlining. The significant role information and communication technology is playing now in Lagos State strategic business decision and the role it will continue to play in the nearest future cannot be overemphasized. This therefore puts the state in the position to make concrete and crucial decisions on what the strategic role ICT centre should be playing in the development of ICT across the state and the use for effective and efficient service delivery.
The present state of affairs in the public sector, especially at local government level appears that the variables responsible for poor performance have not been dealt with and so the problem still lingers. It is against this background that the researcher sought to examine to what extent has informationand communication technology been used to resolve the problems of ineffective service delivery, low performance and corruption in the local government administration.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine Information Communication Technology (ICT) and local government administration, in Lagos State between 2007 – 2015 with specific reference to Alimosho, Amuwo-Odofin, Badagry, Ikeja, Ojo and Oshodi-Isolo. Other specific objectives are to:
1.4 Research Questions
To achieve the stated objectives, the following are the research questions to guide the study.
The following hypotheses are formulated for testing:
H0: There is no significant relationship between the use of information and communication technology and employees’ performance in the six local government areas.
Hi: There is significant relationship between the use of information and communication technology and employees’ performance in the three local government areas.
H0: The use of Information and communication technology in all the six local government areas cannot ensure transparency and accountability.
Hi: The use of Information and Communication Technology in the six local government areas can ensure transparency and accountability.
H0: There is no significant relationship between information and communication technology and effective service delivery system in the six local government areas.
Hi: There is significant relationship between information and communication technology and effective service delivery system in the six local government areas.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Assessing the organizational structure of local government in Nigeria, it is discovered that local governments are not adequately equipped with modern technological advancement, thereby creating widening gap between the government and the governed at the grassroots level.
There is also a concern with high administrative cost not only in terms of salaries and allowances but also with regards to multiplicity and duplication of agencies and departments. There is no link between the high number of staff and their remunerations with service rendered to the people.
The study covers information and communication technologyon the twenty (20) local government areas in Lagos State which include Alimosho, Agege, Ajeromi-Ifelodun, Apapa, Epe, Eti-osa, Ibeju Lekki, Amuwo-Odofin, Badagry, Ikeja, Mushin, Ifako-Ijaye, Ikorodu, Kosofe, Lagos mainland, Somolu, Surulere, Lagos Island, Ojo and Oshodi-Isolo while six local government areas were selected for the adoption of ICT between 2007–2015. The choice of these six local government areas in Lagos State was based on the strategic mechanism that the state government put in place to ensure a more coordinated ICT adoption in the local government. It was observed that the local governments have introduced automated technologies in their operations which further justify their choice for this study. Specific focus will be on the application of ICT in the payment of staff salaries and internally generated revenue.
Nonetheless, this study reflected on the administration of local governments before 2007 as a way of providing significant background to the study for the basis of assessing the effect of ICT introduction from 2007 – 2015.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The expected benefits of this research to all stakeholders and practitioners in the public service are significant. The study would offer an in-depth analysis of what the six local governments stand to benefit, ifan effective information and communication technology policy is fully implemented in Alimosho, Amuwo-Odofin, Badagry, Ikeja, Ojo and Oshodi-Isololocal government areas of Lagos State.
The choice of Lagos State is the fact that she is one of the foremost state in Nigeria in taking a bold step in aligning with the use of ICT in all its sectors and even extending it to the third tier of government in the state. Knowing fully well that an understanding of the effective and responsible use and management of ICT is vital for managers, as it play a key role in the efficient operations, effective management, and strategic success of businesses and other organizations that must operate in a global business environment.
Furthermore, Lagos State seek to key into the three vital roles ICT perform to include support an organization’s business operations, managerial decision making, and strategic advantage and because ICT has become an indispensable ingredient in several major strategies that business are implementing to meet the challenges of a rapidly business environment.
Therefore, the study would contribute to knowledge in terms of provision of relevant information, in the form of ideas, opinion and views from the field (interviews of clients) which would assist public services in all the local governments in the State for effective service delivery, improve performance and ensuring transparency, reducing corruption, reducing cost and quality of services. Another significance of the study is to eloquently proffer ways of adopting ICT in the public service for the growth of the sector. Scholars, upcoming researchers and students in general stand to benefit from this research as it would serves an intellectual information depository for research development in the area of its study. Through this study, they would also know what have already been done in the study area and the areas that constitute or
calls for further study. Above all, this study would however recommend appropriate measures to be adopted so as to guide against the anti-performance circumstances of the public service as it relates to the application of information and communication technology.
It is also hope that it would provoke further research into other local government areas beyond the scope of this study for better performance of the public service as its relate to the application of information and communication technology.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Management: The challenges of effectively and ethically managing the resources and business strategies involved in using information technology at the end user, enterprise, and global levels of a business. It involves the control of human and materials resources towards achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Getting things done through others, efficient utilization of resources.
Strategy: As the basic steps or approaches of management/government towards effecting positive change in the public service civil in order to reach an objective or set of objectives. In other words, the methodologies or measures adopted or outlined by the Lagos state government towards the achievement of employee better performance and productivity improvement/ enhancement in the local government areas of the state to achieve its objectives.
E-governance: E-governance refers to the delivery of goods and service to users through the internet services such face-book, WhatsApp, blackberry massagers, chatOn etc.
Impact: Direct effect, that is, effectiveness + efficiency = impact.
Effectiveness: The ability to produce results needed and intended.
Efficiency: The quality of doing something well with no waste of time and money.
Information and Communication Technology: is the modern handling of information by electronic means which involves storage of processing,access, transportation or transfer and delivery of information.
Local Government: A defined “body” by the constitution a legal instrument arranged monitored function according to oversee the affair of government at the grassroots.
World Wide Web(www): This represents the symbol of the information and communication society. It is the quick access to seek information from the government.
Transformation: This is the process that involves comprehensive institution reform and technological improvement.
National Policy on Tele-communication:It was set up in 2001 to develop infrastructural base of ICT which was charged with the responsibility of implementation of ICT policy
1.9 Organization of the Study
The research study has been organized into five chapters and each chapter is further divided into various subsections. The first chapter introduces the study; statement of problem, objective of the study, followed by statement of research question, research hypotheses, and scope of the study and significance of the study, the second chapter reviews literature and provides theoretical framework for the study, the third chapter constitutes research method, where issues like restatement of the research hypotheses and questions, research design, population of the study, the sample size and type of sampling method used is discussed, it’s also examine the method used in data collection, instrument of data collection and how it is administered, the validity and reliability of the instrument is also looked into, the analysis of data is based on the SPSS statistical packaged to reduce errors.
The chapter four look at the analysis of the data according to the research question, respondent characteristics and classifications, the analysis of operational data, analysis of data according to the research hypotheses tested, the validate and invalidate of the research instrument and discussion of the findings. Finally, the last chapter summarizes and concludes the whole thesis; this chapter also will give recommendations and highlights areas for further studies.