The Project File Details
The research is an investigation into the influence of group pressure on adolescent behavioural problems in Nigeria; a case study of Kaduna South Local Government Area. A review of relevant literatures was done and the social control theory and Pickle Jar Theory served as the theoretical frameworks and empirical review was done. A descriptive research design was adopted for this research work and a total of two hundred (200) respondents participated, who were drawn using a random sampling technique across the various schools. A five-point likert-scale questionnaire based on the biographic data of the respondents, time management and influence of peer pressure on academic performance was used for data collection. Frequency distribution table and simple percentage were used to analyze and interpret the data. The result from the study reveals that there exists a low level of peer pressure among in-school adolescents in Kaduna South Education Zone and recommendations on how to control influence of peer group pressure on adolescent behavioural problems were outline among which is that parents should have effective supervision and should not allow other home environmental factors to distract their adolescent.
Title Page i
Table of Contents ix
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Conceptual of Peer Pressure 15
2.3 Concept of Time Management 17
2.4 Concept of Academic Performance 18
2.5 Concept of Adolescence 20
2.6 Theoretical Review 22
2.7 Empirical Review 26
2.8 Adolescence and Academic Performance 32
2.9 Summary of the Chapter 34
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 36
3.1 Research Design 36
3.2 Sources of Data Collection 36
3.3 Population of the Study 37
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 38
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 38
3.6 Validation of Research Instrument 39
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction 41
4.1 Data Presentation 41
4.2 Summary of Findings 46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Introduction 48
5.2 Summary 48
5.3 Conclusion 49
5.4 Recommendations 50
Background of the study
Adolescence is a stage were, young people begin to make decision of their own break away from their families and try out different roles and situations to figure out who they are and where they fit into the world. They spend more time with their friends and less time with their families. This is a normal, healthy stage of development, but the growing distance between parents and their children and the increasing importance of friends can be a source of conflict and anger within the family. The desire to feel accepted and to fit in is one of the strongest forces in adolescents; this can lead teens to do things that they know are wrong, dangerous, or risky. On the positive side, the pressure to keep up with the peer group can also inspire teens to achieve goals that they might never aim for on their own. In other words, young people prefer to be in the company of other young people, who offer mutual support in contrast to their parents, who they perceive as authoritarian. Perhaps this is why the issue of peer pressure is of great interest to the psychological and sociological fields. Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve mastery of educational objectives. In school , the extent to which these objectives have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance. Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents Allen, (2012). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely on friends as they grow and mature. A peer could be any one you look up to in behavior or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability (Hardcastle, 2013). On the other hand, the term “pressure” implies the process that influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do.
According to Hartney, (2011), peer pressure refers to the influences that peers can have on each other. Peer pressure is emotional or mental forces from people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or behave in a manner similar to themselves (Weinfied 2010). Jones, (2010) defined peer pressure as the ability of people from the same social rank or age to influence another of same age, bracket peer pressure is usually associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone. Individuals in society will usually make friends or have their closest associates from among their peer groups. Therefore, peer associates have a great influence on the lifestyle of their members. In fact peer group association as an agent of socialization, determines to a large extent, what social codes an individual learns (Nsofor, 2013). This implies that individuals whose core group members believe and act criminal within norms will learn and internalize more of criminal codes than those that conform to the norms of the society. As a result, they conclude that individuals become delinquent through association with people who are the carriers of criminal norms and that criminal behavior is learned within primary groups in particular, peer groups. That is, Criminal behavior in adolescents is as a result of social influence. It is important to note here, that primary groups are the smallest units of interactions in society and a small group within the society is more likely to have a stronger control over an individual’s action or behavior. In fact, it is observed that “a small group is likely to control the individual completely”. Adolescence is defined both in terms of age (spanning the ages of 10 to 19 years) and in terms of phase of life by special attributes. These attributes include rapid physical growth and development, physiological, social and psychological maturity, but not all at the same time (World Health Organization (WHO), 2015; Nwankwo and Nwoke, 2009); while correlate is a causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relationship, especially a structural, functional or quality correspondence between two comparable entities for example a correlation between drug abuse and crime. On the other hand, sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse), spiritual transcendence, and or the enjoyment of any activity involving sexual gratification.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Peer pressure can be described as the influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitudes, values, or behaviors to conform to the group. A person affected by peer pressure may or may not want to belong to these groups. They may also recognize dissociative groups that they do not wish to belong to, and therefore adopt behaviors in opposition to those of the group. In the same vein, peer pressure can cause people to do things they would not normally do, e.g., take drugs, smoke, date, marry, have a job, have children and buy expensive items. Research has shown that over the last 50 years peer influence/pressure has emerged as the chief source of values and behavioral influence for adolescents, replacing the influence of adults. It is in this vein that the researcher intends to investigate the influence of group pressure on adolescent behavioral problems in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of group pressure on adolescent behavioral problems in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objectives;
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are questions this research work would attempt to find answers to:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the researcher decides to formulate the following research hypotheses;
H0: group pressure has no influence on the behavioral problem of adolescent in Nigeria.
H1: group pressure has a significant influence on the behavioral problem of adolescent in Nigeria.
H0: group pressure has no significant effect on the academic performance of secondary school students
H2: group pressure has a significant effect on the academic performance of secondary school students.
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance to:
Parent: as it would help them to have a real perspective the their child’s strengths and weaknesses and help them to make good use of their potentials to be good citizens.
Counselor: it would help the counselor know the various problems encountered in each stage of a child’s development and the best procedure to help a child with problem behavior.
Teacher and guidance: it would help them understand the differences existing in each child and know the best method to employ in teaching and learning and to bring up efficient children. it would provide them with the necessary guide and techniques, the study will also be of importance to the school authority as the study will guide them to monitor and dissolve every group that is not educationally and morally oriented.
The study will also be useful to researchers who intend to embark on research in similar topic.
Finally the findings of this study will also be immense benefit to government, academia, scholars and researchers as it would help to formulate polices, programmes and literatures for better understanding of the effects of group pressure on adolescence behavioral problems.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the influence of group pressure on adolescent behavioral problems in Nigeria, but has been delimited to some selected secondary schools in Kaduna State: a case study of Kaduna South Local Government Area. The research would cover four secondary schools and would make use of 200 students, where fifty students each would be randomly selected from each of the school to makeup the population sample for the study.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A Group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together.
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure.
Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values, or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual. This type of pressure differs from general social pressure because it causes an individual to change in response to a feeling of being pressured or influenced from a peer or peer group. Social groups affected include both membership groups, in which individuals are “formally” members (such as political parties and trade unions), and cliques in which membership is not clearly defined. However, a person does not need to be a member or be seeking membership of a group to be affected by peer pressure.
Behavior or behavior is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.
The capacity, power and process or action of persons or things to be a compelling force on or produce effects on the actions, behavior, opinions, e.t.c of others.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; adolescence is a transitional phase of growth and development between childhood and adulthood. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as any person between ages 10 and 19.
a situation, person, or thing that needs attention and needs to be dealt with or solved. It can also be a perceived gap between the existing state and a desired state, or a deviation from a norm, standard, or status quo, although many problems turn out to have several solutions (the means to close the gap or correct the deviation), difficulties arise where such means are either not obvious or are not immediately available.