The Project File Details
The study described the influence of organizational type of perceived job characteristics on organizational citizenship behaviour of workers in Anambra State. A total of 250 participants were used in public and organized private sectors respectively. Job characteristics scale (Hackman & Oldham, 1975) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour scale (Lee & Allen, 2002) were used. Findings suggested that (i) there was no significant relationship between organized private and public sector employees on the manifestation of citizenship behaviour F (1, 247) = .01, p< .91; (ii) there was a positive significant relationship between job characteristics of employees and OCB (r = 0.19, p<.01); (iii) on job characteristics for all employees only skill variety (B= .18, t = 2.53, p<.01) made positive and significant relationship to OCB; (iv) testing for OCB on job characteristics for organized private employee there was a significant change in variance in OCB F (10, 112) = 2.14, p< .02; R= .40, R2 = .16; (v) testing for OCB on job characteristic for public employee, job characteristics accounted for near significant variance on OCB with F (9, 112) = 1.84, p< .06; R= .36, R2 = 13. The findings of the study were important in that it supported some existing theories and advanced the course of knowledge.
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – v
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – viii
Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1
Background of the study – – – – – – – 1
Statement of problem- – – – – – – – 8
Purpose of the study – – – – – – – – 9
Research questions – – – – – – – – 10
Significance of the study – – – – – – – 10
Review of Literature – – – – – – – – 12
Theoretical background – – – – – – – – 12
Scientific management theory – – – – – – – 12
Bureaucratic theory – – – – – – – – 13
Administrative theory – – – – – – – – 14
Neoclassical organization theory – – – – – – 19
Conditions and results – – – – – – – – 21
The findings – – – – – – – – – 23
Job characteristics – – – – – – – – 38
Job characteristics model – – – – – – – 39
Empirical background – – – – – – – – 45
Summary – – – – – – – – – – 53
Hypotheses – – – – – – – – – 54
Method – – – – – – – – – – 55
Participants – – – – – – – – – 55
Instrument – – – – – – – – – – 57
Procedure – – – – – – – – – – 58
Statistics – – – – – – – – – – 58
Results – – – – – – – – – – 59
Discussion – – – – – – – – – – 67
Conclusion — – – – – – – – – 71
Recommendations – – – – – – – – 71
Limitations – – – – – – – – – 71
Suggestions for further research – – – – – – 72
REFERENCES – – – – – – – – – 73
APPENDIX – – – – – – – – – 92
Background of the study
Modern organization typically exist within complex and dynamic
environments (Duncan, 1972; Wheatly, 1992). To be successful,
organization must monitor their environments and adapt their strategies and
tactics to meet new challenges. An organization, by its most basic
definition, is an assembly of people working together to achieve common
objectives through a division of labour (Jeffrey, 1997). An organization
provides a means of using individual strengths within a group to achieve
more than can be accomplished by the aggregate efforts of group members
working individually. According to Stojkovic, Kalinich and Klofas (1998),
organization means the coordination of groups or entities consisting of two
or more persons (a collectivity), which has an identifiable boundary, and
internal structure (offices), and engages in activities related to some
complex set of goals.
There are different types of organization such as religious organization,
political organization, cultural organization and so on. Which have their
aims and objectives. But for the purpose of this paper, two types of
organizations will be examined: Organized private sector and Public
Organized private sector, which is one of the independent variables of this
study, include small scale and medium scale. An establishment is
considered to be small scale it its local cost including working capital but
excluding cost of land is over N1.5 million but not more than N50 million
and a labour size of between 11 and 100 workers. While an industry whose
total cost including working capital but excluding cost of land is above N50
million but not more than N200 million with a labour size of between 101
300 workers is considered medium scale industries. A large scale industry is
one whose total cost including working capital but excluding cost of land is
higher than N200 million with a labour size of over 300 (Ministry of
Commerce, Industry and Tourism Awka, Anambra State, 2008). In
organized private sector ultimate control is vested in the owners. In public
sector, the ownership is usually the government. These differences may
presumably translate into different organizational objectives: profit for
organized private sector and some goals other than profit in public sector.
The way this works is through the explicit choice of formation of public
sectors that incorporate not in other to make profits for their owners i.e.
government; but to pursue objectives that allegedly are beyond the
capability and resources of the organized private sector.
These differences are likely to translate into different outcome and
performance. Organized private sector is likely to emphasize profit, subject
to law, regulations and owner’s and operator’s ethical constraints. Public
sector is likely to focus on objectives that are quite different from that of the
organized private sector i.e. more interested in getting the job done
reflecting the views and interests of the groups that sponsor them. It is also
important to mention that the organized private sector being referred to here
and which will be used in this research discourse are small and medium
scale industries in Anambra State. This is because that there is no large
scale industry in the state (Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism
Awka, Anambra State, 2008).
In public sector, which is another independent variable of the study, many
official relationships and networks are given, meaning that there are official
and formal ways on how to operate and official roles linked to each other
(formal hierarchy). It is a nation’s administrative and economic life that
deals with provision of services and goods by and for the government. It
encompasses the sub-sectors of general government- mostly central/federal,
state and local government units – as well as public corporations, i.e.
corporations subject to control by government units (UNECE, 2008).
Therefore, public sector encompasses organizations dependent on
government budgetary allocations for their funding (mainly government
departments, controlled by Ministers and Government Departmental
Directors/Chiefs) – these will be referred to as ‘public services’ or just
‘government’. Semi- government organizations sell goods and services for a
price because they make them with purchased inputs and have hired workers
who need to be paid off. Examples are universities, hospitals, nursing
homes, registration boards, regulatory bodies of different types and statutory
authorities. Although they may make profit, semi-government organizations
cannot distribute it to shareholders since they need to plough it back into the
running costs of the institutions (Winston 1997, McLane 2003).
There are no individual with deep financial interest as in organized private
sector; hence organized private sector is more efficient than public sector in
pursuing their respective objectives. Public sector may also engage workers
and managers who can provide services that reflects public needs, than
those reflected in organized private sector. The public sector mentioned here
and to be used in this study are Ministries in the Anambra State
In recent time due to technology and globalization government is more
involved in all areas of the society. As a result of this, the organized private
sector and public sector operations are affected and in some cases
determined, by the overriding political authority. And no organization is
entirely free to such authority as the government at one point or the other
tending to provide them with operational guidelines.
Job characteristics are the extent that a job is structured to provide regular
feedback as well as a sense of task completion and employees to monitor
their own behaviour and gain an increased sense of personal control
(Greenberger & Strasser, 1986). Personal control is an individual’s belief
that he or she can affect a change in a desired direction. According to
Lawler (1992), an increase in perceived control strengthens emotional bonds
with an organization. A heightened sense of personal control thus has
positive consequences for employees attitudes and behaviours at work.
Chiu and Chen (2005) considered that job characteristics are those attributes
of job, which have motivational function for employees. Oliver, Baker,
Demerouti, & de Jong (2005), claimed that perceived job characteristics
would influence the motivation and performance of employees. The
components of job characteristics are (i) skill variety – the degree that an
employee could use different skills or abilities to complete a job (ii) task
identity – the degree that an employee could handle a job from beginning to
end (iii) task significance – the degree that a job could influence
employees’ lives or job (iv) job autonomy – the degree that an employee
could determine how the job could be completed (v) job feedback – the
degree that an employee could directly obtain the information about the job
outcomes due to his or her effort (vi) feedback from agents – define as the
information about one’s performance obtained from supervisors and
coworkers. Job characteristics, which is one of the independent variables of
study, refer to attributes, which related to the job itself. The nature of the job
determines the desirability of the job by the worker. The characteristics of
the job as to what and what is entails may drive one to decide on which
organization to work for a job to take up. Jobs that are tasking may likely
find much lesser interest by some workers than those that are less tasking.
Job characteristics are the hub of any organizational performance as it
determines the efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and time management
of the organization. Therefore, jobs should be characterized in such a
manner that it is achievable, motivating, and reduces work force turnover
also taking cognizance the strength and weakness of the employee.
Job characteristics such as meaningful work, autonomy and feedback
maximize the possibility for internal motivation. According to Jernigan,
Beggs and Kohut (2002), satisfaction with autonomy (perceived
independence), status (sense of importance) and policies (satisfaction with
organizational demands) are all significant predictors of organizational
citizenship behaviour. Thus, specific characteristics of a job can increase an
employee’s sense of felt responsibility and subsequently, the sense of
attachment to the organization. Understanding how one’s job contributes to
interdependent outcomes enhances feelings of embeddedness and
accountability. Similarly, awareness of outcomes (feedback) can lead to a
strong feeling of mutual responsibility. A job that allows a high degree of
autonomy and absence of close supervision suggests a situation
characterized by trust. Hence, the freedom associated with autonomy and
low monitoring is balanced by the reciprocal response of reasonability and
organizational citizenship behaviour.
Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as employee’s voluntary
behaviour that promotes organizational effectiveness through going beyond
performance recognized by an organization’s reward system (Organ, 1990).
Organizational citizenship behaviours are extra-role behaviours employees
display which are above beyond formal role requirements (Netemeyer
Boles, Mckee & Murrian, 1997). Feather and Ranter 2004 described
organizational but not directly or definitely rewarded by the organization.
Such behaviours described as OCB are the same as what Katz and Kahn
(1978) referred to, as employee’s extra-performance behaviours without
which organizations cannot survive. This is because OCB includes
behaviours, which support the well being of the collective, requiring the
subordination of self-interest, while motivating extra performance towards
supporting the interest of the group (Organ, 1990; Moorman & Blakely,
1995). One good way to understand OCB is to consider one of its major
examples “altruism”, which entails helping without expecting anything in
return; for example, helping a co-worker with a job-related problems,
whereby such help cannot be required of the helper nor is it rewarded by the
organization. OCB’s are manifested as “acts of co-operation, helpfulness,
suggestions, gestures of goodwill, altruism, and other instances” of
prosocial behaviour (Smith, Organ & Near, 1983, p. 653).
There are two dimensions of OCB that pertain to its central beneficiaries-
the organization and the individual (Smith, Organ & Near, 1983). OCBO
initially called Generalized Compliance refers to communication and
behaviour that benefits the organization in general (e.g., complying with
informal rules that maintain harmony and order). OCBI first called Altruism
refers to communication and behaviour that help specific individuals or
groups within the organization (e.g., developing personal relationships with
other employees). OCBI may be directed toward co-workers, supervisors,
and clients. OCBO benefits the organization in general (e.g., through
enhanced productivity, innovation, and responsiveness), (Van Dyne,
Graham & Dienesch, 1994). In contrast, OCBI benefits individuals or
groups (e.g., through satisfying relationships), and in this way, indirectly
benefits the organization (William & Anderson, 1991).
Organizational citizenship behaviour, which is the dependent variable of
study, facilitates a climate of respect, trust, commitment, and shared values.
By engaging in OCB, organizational members develop mutual convents that
facilitate the achievement of organizational pursuits and the maintenance of
relationships. Such a convent reveals “a reciprocal relationship based on ties
that bind individuals to their communities and communities to their
members” (Van Dyne et al., p. 768). Members who feel bound to their
organization and perceive that they personally benefit from the organization
are more likely to reciprocate their goodwill in form of OCB (Organ, 1988).
Moreover, members who perceive their supervisors perform OCB are more
likely to perform OCB themselves, indicating a trickle-down effect that
influences organizational structure (Tepper & Taylor, 2003). According to
Cohen and Vigoda (2000) some of the benefits of OCB that can accrue to an
organizational include: (a) improved co-worker and managerial
productivity. (b) superior efficiency in resource use and allocation, (c)
reduced maintenance expenses, and (d) improved organizational
attractiveness for high-quality new recruits. Therefore, this study focuses
on, “the influence of organizational type and perceived job
characteristics on organizational citizenship behaviour of workers in
Statement of Problem
Research has found that organized private sector employees and mangers
value economic rewards more highly than do public sector employees and
managers (Cacioppe and Mock, 1984; Crewson, 1997; Houston, 2000; Karl
and Sutton, 1998; Khojasteh 1993; Rainey, 1982; Rawls, Ulrich, and Nelson
1976; Schuster, Colleti and Knowles, 1973; Solomon, 1986; Wittmer,
1991). Direct economic benefits are less important for public sector
employees than those in the organized private sector (Newstrom, Reif, and
Monczka, 1976). Pay is a much greater motivator for organized private
sector employees, supervisors (Jurkiewicz, Massey, and Brown, 1998), and
managers (Khojasteh, 1993) than it is for their public sector counterparts.
Unlike organized private sector mangers, public sector managers are not
strongly motivated by pay expectancy (Moon, 2000).
Furthermore there is a broad consensus that public sector managers are more
intrinsically motivated. Most studies have concluded that public sector
workers are less extrinsically and hence more intrinsically motivated
(Cacioppe and Mock, 1984; Crewson, 1997). Public sector employees are
more motivated by job content, self-development, recognition, autonomy,
interesting work and the change to learn new things (Houston, 2000;
Jurkiewicz, Massey, and Brown, 1998; Karl and Sutton, 1998; Khojasteh,
1993; Newstrom, Reif, and Monczka, 1976). Only a minority of studies
report findings that public sector employees show weaker internal work
motivation than their organized private sector counterparts (Aryee, 1992).
Little or scanty study have been carried out on the influence of organized
private sector employees and public sector employees in relation to
citizenship behaviour, hence, this study.
Furthermore, research has shown that employees engage in higher levels of
citizenship behaviour when they have opportunity to work on intrinsically
satisfying tasks. However, citizenship levels are likely to be markedly lower
when employees are given repetitive, highly routinized tasks to complete. In
addition, bureaucratic rules and procedures that overly constrain workers
may serve to inhibit acts of citizenship (Bolino & Turnley, 2003).
This assertion is critical to this study, as the study will try and find out if job
characteristics will influence citizenship behaviour, hence, this study.
Chiu and Chen (2005) investigated the effects of job interdependence and
five core job characteristic proposed by Hackman and Oldham (1975, 1980)
on organizational citizenship behaviour. The result indicated that job variety
and job significance were positively and significantly related to OCB. While
job identity, job feedback, and job autonomy were not significantly related
Therefore, this study will examine whether the argument will be extended to
organizational type, hence, this study.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out the extent type of organization and
perceived job characteristics will influence the citizenship behaviour of
workers in Anambra State.
The objective of the study is:
1. To find out whether organized private sector employees will manifest
citizenship behaviour more than the public sector employees.
2. To find out whether perceived job characteristics of employees will
significantly influence their citizenship behaviour.
3. To find out whether perceived job characteristics and organizational
type will independently and jointly influence the citizenship
behaviour of employees.
1. Will organized private sector employees manifest citizenship
behaviour more than the public sector employees?
2. Will perceived job characteristics of employees significantly
influence their citizenship behaviour?
3. Will perceived job characteristics and organizational type
independently and jointly influence the citizenship behaviour of
Significance of the Study
The finding of the study will be helpful to show indications of a number of
important differences between organized private sector workers and public
sector workers, which cannot be ignored in considerations of management
research, training, and practice but more importantly, the reasons to
continue public and organized private comparisons, not in rejection of
efforts at general understanding of organizations and their management, but
in the effort to supplement it. Also it outlines performance in both organized
private and public sectors as anchored on their organizational objectives and
effectiveness of elicitation of worker effort directed to these objectives.
The study will show how jobs should be structured to enable employees
undertake them with the purpose of completing them removing those
bureaucratic processes that will impede their completion invariably leading
to citizenship behaviour. It will also buttress those characteristics of a job
that will influence the performance of work by workers in an organization.
Furthermore, the study will show in details the meanings of citizenship
behaviour and its benefits to the employee at one hand and the organization
in general. The concept, citizenship behaviour has been variously researched
and large topics about citizenship behaviour cause some conceptual
confusion about the nature of the construct. This doubt the study will clear
by showing in simple terms the core meaning of organizational citizenship
behaviour and their dimensions.
Moreso, the study will help employers of labour to take adequate
organizational decisions as to job design and to know the capabilities of
their individual workers and workforce. This in essence will give the
organization a clearer roadmap to follow and to arrive at best decisions as
regard workers’ welfare and organizational success.
Finally, it will serve as a guide to readers and researchers of interest to come
to term with those organizational bottlenecks and the best possible ways to