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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Conceptual Framework 7
2.2.1 Concept of Poverty 7
2.2.2 Concept of Development 9
2.2.3 Concept of Policy 11
2.3 Empirical Literature 12
2.3.1 Gap in Literature 13
2.3.2 Millennium Development Goals 13
2.3.3 Sustainable Development Goals 14
2.3.4 National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy 15
2.3.5 State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy 16
2.3.6 Anambra Integrated Development Strategy 17
2.4 Theoretical Framework 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Area of the Study 25
3.3 Research Design 25
3.4 Sources/ Methods of Data Collection 25
3.5 Population of the Study 26
3.6 Sample Size 27
3.7 Sampling Technique 28
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 28
3.9 Validity of Data Collection Instruments 29
3.10 Reliability of Data Collection Instruments 29
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The United Nations body at the Millennium Summit held in 2000, formulated and adopted the Millennium Development Goals. These goals were eight in number and cover the following areas: Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, Achievement of universal primary education, to promote gender equality and empower women, to reduce child mortality, to improve maternal health, to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, to ensure environmental sustainability, to develop a global partnership for development.
Following the adoption of this mandate by the government of Nigeria, the Federal government in 2004 established the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) to become the operational mechanism that would drive the economy at the federal level for a holistic sustainable development in the country. In pursuance of MDG mantra, the federal government urged the states and the local government to collaborate with it in this economic movement by implementing equivalent programs based on the NEEDS model known as State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS) and Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) at the state and local government levels respectively.
State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS) were specifically designed to lay a solid foundation for sustainable poverty reduction, employment generation, wealth creation, provision of social amenities and value oriented economy. The core mandate of SEEDS among others include, empowering people through provision of quality education, health care services and facilities, agricultural development and promotion of small and medium scale enterprises. SEEDS also have the mandate of promoting private enterprises especially on a medium and small scale. This it intends to achieve through provision of basic infrastructure, supporting trade and commerce and encouraging industrialization. These are in addition to the aim of de-bureaucratizing the public service to make it more effective, responsive and dynamic.
The SEEDS policy in Anambra state is regarded as a social contract between the government and people of the state to alleviate poverty, generate employment and create wealth. The SEEDS document addresses poverty, human development, infrastructure, and governance, in line with NEEDS, which is a variant of the global MDGs.
The target beneficiaries of the SEEDS policy are the people, especially those in the rural areas. It has as its major goal, the objective of fostering a valid partnership between the people and the government and the responses of the people about their perception of their environment and what they need to develop as a people.
Therefore, the bedrock of SEEDS is its vision of Anambra State with a new set of reforms, values and principles which will facilitate the unbundling of the economic sectors in the state to facilitate achievements of economic goals of wealth creation, poverty reduction, transparency and employment generation which provides for sustainable development in the state.
It is in this regard that this research endeavor was triggered to assess the impact of the State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy on Poverty Alleviation in Anambra state, focusing on selected local government areas in the state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Government all over the world has been at pains to attain an appreciable level of development where the majority of its citizens enjoy a reasonable level of comfort, happiness and wellbeing. The millennium declaration in 2000 testifies to this fact.
However in Nigeria, reports from the National Bureau of Statistics, the United Nations Development Programme, and other development agencies – both Local and International – indicate that over 70 percent of the populace live in poverty. This high poverty rate is most prevalent in the rural areas. There exist in these areas an acute shortage or lack of economic opportunities in terms of infrastructure and other support systems that help businesses to thrive. The state of infrastructure in the rural areas particularly, can be likened to being in a condition of near collapse.
Government, in responding to these challenges have formulated various policies and programmes aimed at addressing the malaise of underdevelopment especially with regards to the rural areas who, by conditions of nature, design and geography are not in proximity with the seat of power. The SEEDS policy, which is the state version of the NEEDS policy that sought to domesticate the global MDGs, is one of such initiatives aimed at addressing the developmental challenges in the country generally and Anambra State in particular.
Sadly though, long after the state government commenced the implementation of the SEEDS initiative, problems of poverty, unemployment are still strife in the state. According to Chukwuemeka and Chukwujindu (2013), social amenities in terms of good road network, supply of good and adequate water, access roads in the rural areas, provision of basic education for its children and youths, healthcare services, transportation services, rural electrification programme and provision of information and communication technology (ICT) to the teeming and yearning people of Anambra State is inadequate.
In view of the fact that SEEDS in Anambra State have the mandate of poverty alleviation, wealth creation and value reorientation, the researcher is poised to ask; to what extent has SEEDS addressed poverty alleviation in the rural areas of Anambra State?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to determine the effects of State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS) on poverty alleviation among rural communities in Anambra State. The specific objectives of the study are:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
H0: SEEDS has not led to socio-infrastructural development in rural communities in Anambra State
H1: SEEDS has led to socio-infrastructural development in rural communities in Anambra State
H0: SEEDS has not led to small and medium enterprise development in rural communities in Anambra State
H1: SEEDS has led to small and medium enterprise development in rural communities in Anambra State
H0: SEEDS policy has not generated employment opportunities for rural communities in Anambra State
H1: SEEDs policy has generated employment opportunities for rural communities in Anambra State
H0: There are no strategies that can be recommended for overcoming the challenges affecting the implementation of SEEDS in Anambra State
H1: There are strategies that can be recommended for overcoming the challenges affecting the implementation of SEEDS in Anambra State
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has both theoretical and empirical significance.
Theoretically, this study re-echoes the imperative of bottom up approach in managing the challenges of rural development in Nigeria, It also canvassed for strong government intervention in arresting poverty challenges in Anambra State. The study would also be useful to scholars, researchers as it serves as an intellectual information depository for research development on topical issues especially on poverty alleviation.
Empirically, this study would be useful to government and policy makers in designing a blue print for the development of Anambra State and alleviation of poverty in the state.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on the effects of SEEDS on poverty alleviation among rural areas of Anambra State. Three Local government areas were selected, they are: Awka north local government area, Ogbaru local government area and Ekwusigo local government area. The time frame for the study will be from 2006-2014, which covers the 8 year period of the Peter Obi administration as governor of Anambra state.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: The powerful effect that something has on somebody or something
Poverty: The state of not having enough money for basic needs
Alleviation: The act of reducing the effect of something
Eradication: The act of destroying or getting rid of something completely, especially something bad
MDG: Millennium Development Goals
NEEDS: National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
SEEDS: State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy
Infrastructure: The basic systems and services that are necessary for a country or an organization for example buildings, transport, water etc.
Government: The group of people who are responsible for controlling a country or a state.
Health: The state of being physically and mentally healthy.
Education: A process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
Agriculture: The science or practice of farming
Administration: The organization of men, money and materials in an organization for the accomplishment of identifiable goals.