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The issues of bribery and corruption have taken a central stage in the polity as a matter of grave concern to all well-meaning citizens and Nigerian government. This is in view of the endemic nature of the phenomenon in our society which hinders growth and indeed development. Concerned with the issue of bribery and corruption, the Nigeria government has set up the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and other institutions designed to combat the malaise and to promote good governance and transparency. The major objective of the research work is to assess the performance of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in its fighting against bribery and corruption in Nigeria. Data for the study were generated from both primary and secondary sources. The instrument for primary data collection is questionnaires, while for the secondary data collection includes published and unpublished text. Well frame hypotheses are stated for the purpose of this research. The study also revealed that irrespective of the fact that, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has succeeded in reducing corruption in the country to some degree, the same Act that created the Commission has, on the other hand, constituted hindrance to the Commission by creating undue interference from the Office of the Attorney General of the Federation (AGF) and the Presidency, hence vitiating the autonomy of the Commission. The inability of other institutions in the temple of justice like the judiciary to apportioned appropriate punishment to the perpetrators of corruption. The research work recommends the independence of Economic and financial Crimes commission (EFCC), removal of immunity clause, improvement in educational infrastructural facilities and speedy dispensation of justice.
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – ii
Certification Page – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study. – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem. – – – – – 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study. – – – – – – 4
1.4 Significance of the Study. – – – – – 4
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study. – – – – 5
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH METHOD 2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – 6
2.2 Hypotheses. – – – – – – – 16
2.3 Operationalization of the Key Concepts in the Hypotheses.- 17 2.4 Methodology. – – – – – – – 19
2.4.1 Theoretical Framework. – – – – – – 19
220.127.116.11 Application of Theoretical Framework – – – 20
2.4.2 Research Design. – – – – – – – 22
2.4.3 Method of Data Collection. – – – – – 23
18.104.22.168 Population of the Study – – – – – – 23
22.214.171.124 Sampling Technique. – – – – – – 24
126.96.36.199 Sources of Data Collection – – – – – 25
188.8.131.52 Test of Validity and Reliability of Research Instruments- 25
184.108.40.206 Method of Data Analysis. – – – – – 26
CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA/GENERAL
3.1 Constitutional Basis of EFCC and Historical Development of
Corruption. – – – – – – – – 27
3.2 Types, Causes and, Consequences of Corruption – – 34
3.3 EFCC Establishment Act and the Organizational Structures. – 42
3.4 Powers and Functions of EFCC. – – – – 48
3.5 Limitation Powers of EFCC and Achievement of the
Anti-graft Agency. – – – — – – – 52
3.6. An Assessment of the Performance of EFCC in a War Against
Bribery and Corruption – – – – – -54
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 60
4.2 Data Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of the – –
Respondents – – – – – – – – 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 71
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 74
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 76
Bibliography – – — – – – – – – 79
List of Tables – – – – – – – – 83
Appendix – – – – — – – – – 84
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Corruption has been the major problem bedeviling this country. It has
virtually defied all solutions so far. In Nigeria bribery and corruption have
assumed an alarming rate, established stronghold that the weekly star of 15th
May, 1983, quoted in Achebe (1983.43), unequivocally maintains “that keeping
an average Nigerian from being corrupt is like keeping a goat from eating yam”
Corruption has been recognized as the major enemy of man, it is
however, lack of political will to begin to tackle this problem, except for Buhari
/Idiagbon regime (1983-1985) and Obasanjo regime (1999-2007). Past futile
intervention against corruption include the corrupt practices Decree of 1975,
the public officer (investigation of Assets) Decree No 5 of 1976, supplemented
by the code of conduct Bureau and code of conduct tribunal as provided for in
the 1979 constitution. Shehu Shagari ethical revolution (1979-1983), with a
minister of cabinet rank in charge of “national guidance”, the “war against
indiscipline” campaign under the Buhari and Idiagbon junta which was to some
extent the only serious intervention and the National committee on corruption
and other Economics crimes under Ibrahim Babangida (1985-93). The IBB
regime also came up with the corrupt practice and Economic crime Decree of
1990. Even the Sani Abacha regime (1994-98) came up with its own anti
corruption Decree, the “Indiscipline, corrupt practices and Economic crime
(prohibition) Decree 1994” which was a replica of IBB Decree of 1990.
However, it is regrettable to note that inspite of interventions by past
regimes to stamp out corruption, the evil monster keeps on recurring. According
to Okonkwo (2005: 85):
A historical view of bribery and corruption in Nigeria shows that rhetoric against corruption does not end corruption. All the inspiring words of our leaders and journalists have not changed anyone.
Against this background, it has become unavoidably important to
critically assess the performance of EFCC in fighting against bribery and
corruption in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, successive administrations in Nigeria have set up various
institutions designed to fight corruption. These institutions have not functioned
appropriately and as a result institutionalization of corruption. The above
scenario almost turned Nigeria into pariah nation. In foreign countries Nigerians
were treated with suspicion and embarrassment and foreigners were wary of
making Nigeria their investment destination. The more government devises
genuine policies and plans to combat corruption, the more the implementation
pattern seems to be frustrated.
Corruption, real or imagined, is believed to be so endemic in Nigeria that
public disapproval of it has gradually turned into tacit acquiescence and positive
acceptance. When are we planning to go out of this wood and join the comity of
respected and dignified nations of the world?
This is the right time to act and investigate the hydra-headed problem of
corruption for the sake of the unborn generations.
The political and socio-Economic destructive effects of corruption have
been so overwhelming that unless decisive steps were taken, the country might
well be doomed.
Inspite of the several legislations and multiple institutions put in place to
fight corruption, little result has been achieved. This has made people to loose
hope in our ability to get out of this difficult situation. What home grown
solution can rid us out of this doom? Hence the research questions:
1. What are the efficacy of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in
its fight against bribery and corruption in Nigeria?
2. What level of autonomy has been granted to Economic and Financial
Crimes Commission in the country?
3. Can severe punishment of offenders boost the effective performance of
4. What are the challenges militating against the performance of EFCC in its
fight against corruption?
5. What is the way forward?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
The general objective of this study is to assess the performance of
Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in its fight against bribery and
corruption in Nigeria.
The specific objectives of the study are as follows:
1. To examine the effectiveness or otherwise of EFCC.
2. To ascertain the extent at which EFCC is granted autonomy.
3. To identify the various challenges facing Economic and Financial Crimes
Commission (EFCC) in carrying out its responsibility as a Crime Fighter
4. To proffer solutions that will strengthened Economic and Financial Crimes
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The significance of this study or research cannot be over emphasized
because of the immense contribution it is supposed to offer in the area of
development of knowledge in corruption in Nigeria. Over the years, scholars
and experts have dedicated much attention to the study of corruption and their
effects on the underdevelopment and development of different world’s
economies. This study therefore is centered on the effects of corruption in
Nigeria, and the war against the end called corruption and how the government
has used certain policies and institutions to fight this malaise.
EFCC is studied as one the agents that champion the war against corruption in
Nigeria economy. It is therefore hoped that this will highlight the effect of
corruption, dimensions of corruption and roles so far performed by EFCC to
combat bribery and corruption in Nigeria.
This work will serve as a very relevant and important material for further
research on activities of EFCC in war against bribery and corruption in Nigeria
economy. Furthermore, it will also increase the literatures that exist on
corruption among nations in the world.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.
The scope of this research work focuses on the legal framework,
functions and relevance of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
(EFCC) in the management and prevention of corruption in Nigeria. The reason
for choosing this particular case study is to have a critical analysis of the
commission as an anti-corruption commission having realized its goals and
objectives within a period of nine (9) years (2002-2010).
To the above end, the research work is limited to Federal Capital
Territory (FCT) Abuja because of time and financial constraint.