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Primarily, this research work focused on the identification of the indigenous apprenticeship trades that exist in Ibadan. Methods of apprenticeship training system as well as its consequences on technical education were also investigated. Three research questions and one hypotheses were formulated. A proportionate stratified sampling technique was adopted to select trainees for the study. Questionnaire items were administered to 35 tailors. The researcher made use of frequency distribution, mean and chi-square statistics for the data analysis. The study revealed that apprenticeship training existed in tailoring, welding, carpentry, blacksmithing, carving, fishing, poultry, gardening, cookery, weaving and dyeing, leather works, cane crafts, mat carpet and native medicine. Various methods of indigenous apprenticeship training in use in Ibadan includes oral instruction, demonstration, observation, try out by apprentices, occupational participation and project method. A good proportion of trainees had formal or no formal education; majority of tailors received formal education at below primary six level. Graduates of indigenous apprenticeship complement the technical work force require in the private sector. The chi-square results of the study revealed no significant difference at p > 0.05 in the opinion of respondents regarding the consequences of indigenous apprenticeship on technical education in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study concludes that indigenous apprenticeship training will help youths in developing interests and saleable skills, which they can utilize in productive activities for their benefits as well as for their parents and communities. The study therefore recommends that the trades which are predominant in Ibadan, Oyo State should be adequately developed and revitalized
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background to the study 2
1.3 Statement of the problem 5
1.4 Objectives of the study 6
1.5 Research questions 7
1.6 Statement of the hypothesis 7
1.7 Significance of the study 7
1.8 Justification of the study 8
1.9 Scope of the study 9
1.10 Definitions of terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Conceptual frame work 11
2.2 Theoretical frame work 16
2.3 Literature on the subject matter 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 37
3.1 Area of study 37
3.2 Research design 37
3.3 Population of the Study 38
3.4 Sample Size Determination 38
3.5 Instrumentation 39
3.6 Methods of Data Analysis 39
3.7 Limitations of the study 40
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction 41
4.1 Findings of the study 41
4.2 Test of hypothesis 49
4.3 Discussion of the findings 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings 52
5.2 Conclusion 53
5.3 Recommendations 54
5.4 Proposal for further studies 55
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1.1: Gender of the respondents 41
Table 4.1.2: Age of the respondents 42
Table 4.1.3: Status of respondents 42
Table 4.1.4: Educational Background of the Respondents 43
Table 4.1.5: Years of Experience of the Respondents 43
Table 4.1.6: Groups that respondents falls into 44
Table 4.1.7: What process and organization of apprenticeship training
programme does the company recommend for its artisans 44
Table 4.1.8: Which of the methods of indigenous apprenticeship training
were carried out in Oyo State 45
Table 4.1.9: Have apprenticeship training programme promoted job satisfaction
and performance among artisans in the company 45
Table 4.1.10: Which of the factors influence the decision to enroll as an apprentice 46
Table 4.1.11: Does the performance of artisans have effect on apprenticeship
training in your company 46
Table 4.1.12: Apprenticeship training is not responsible for the low image of
technical education in the state. 47
Table 4.1.13: Is there any relationship between apprenticeship training and the
performance of artisans 47
Table 4.1.14: It does provide specific training experiences for forming the right
habits of doing, for gainful employment. 48
Table 4.1.15: Does the organization review its training programme 48
Table 4.1.16: Are there any social and personal benefits resulting from the training 49
Table 4.2.1: Testing of the Hypothesis 50
There have been no empirical work in Nigeria on measuring the effectiveness of the apprenticeship training and the course attendance programs. This is the first study attempting to measure the effectiveness of the apprenticeship training and course attendance on the probability of employment. Probit models of employment are estimated for females and males separately. Both the apprenticeship training and course attendance programs are found to have a positive impact on the probability of employment. These impacts were not very large but statistically significant.
In many countries apprenticeship programs are important step into the labor market contributing to alleviate youth unemployment problem (Askilden and Nilsen, 2010). It is well known that apprenticeship programs underpinned by a legal framework and state support has remained rather strong in Germany and the surrounding countries such as Austria and Switzerland, where it covers a wide range of occupations and a large proportion of the age cohort (Gospel, 2003). For Britain, modern apprenticeship is a major attempt to revive the labor market route to vocational education and training for intermediate skills (Gospel, 2003).
The objective of apprenticeship training and course attendance programs is to improve the attractiveness of the participant to potential employers or to enable them to establish their own business. These programs serve to enhance the human capital of the participant. This is expected to have two consequences. One is to increase the employers’ demand for the participants’ labor or the participants acquire the necessary skills to establish their own business. As a result the participants’ probability of employment will increase. The second consequence is to increase the wage rate of the participant earned in employment. An alternative view point is the non-human-capital one, such as Thurow’s (1980) job competition model. According to this model, participation in a training program may be used as a signal by the employers of the individual’s motivation or capacity for training. Hence, this model predicts an increase both in the employment probability and the wage rate. The human capital and the job competition models are not mutually exclusive but are rather complementary.
1.2 Background to the Study
Apprenticeship as explained by (Ezeji and Nkajimeje, 1986) is an arrangement whereby an infant or an adult, male or female bonds himself or herself to serve and learn within a definite time from a master who undertakes to teach his trade or calling to an apprentice. Apprenticeship is a form of vocational training that has formal relationship between the Stylist (trainer) and apprentice (trainee) through which the mutual obligations and duties of each are established by written or oral agreement. The term “apprenticeship” is associated with a contract for the services to be rendered. The service is a form of instruction on the part of the master and learning through working on the part of the learner or apprentice.
The evolution of indigenous apprenticeship ushered in an era of breakthrough in man’s attempt to originate a more systematic means of livelihood. However, there was a steady decline in this system following the European industrial revolution. The indigenous apprenticeship system lost its important characteristic, which is personal guidance and instruction by the Stylist. This change is as a result of the increase in demand for manufactured dresses, which could be met by means of large scale production using machine operators who did not need long periods of apprenticeship to learn how to operate machines.
In Oyo State the system of indigenous apprenticeship is to a large extent still governed by the bilateral agreement between the Stylist and the apprentice’s parent or relation, or even the apprentice himself, depending on the age. Children of at least 10 years of age and even below are espoused to fashion designing, sometimes for an unspecified period of time for apprenticeship training.
Technical education is the modern version of apprenticeship. It caters for varied individuals, thereby satisfying educational as well as occupational needs of the individuals. The increasing demands for vocational education is evidenced by the increase in the number of public school programmes, stimulated by the organisation and further development of new types of vocational schools and classes in public places. Vocational educators contend that vocational education is so vital to the national welfare that its development should not be left in the hands of schools working independent of each other.
The skills required for these works are acquired through numerous methods. ome skills are best acquired through the whole project method, that is learning of a job by the presentation of the task to be done by the master-craftsman to the apprentice to complete. Others are best dealt with by a progressive part method that is learning a whole project part by part. One can only progress when the skills of one part are mastered before moving to the next part. Another is to practice each part in isolation to the required standard and then combine them. The relative efficacy of each method varies with the type of skill. Teaching and acquiring manipulative skills involve a number of steps. These include:
i. The preparation of the learner, that is to get students’ complete attention on the job.
ii. Presenting the job which involves telling, showing, illustrating and questioning;
iii. Trying out the performance, and
iv. The last step is the follow up.
Other methods of acquiring skills through apprenticeship are: imitation, repetition and occupational participation. Through imitation, apprentice gets acquainted with how the master performs the act. Repetition entails performing an operation several times, so as to be able to master the operation. Occupational participation involves both the imitation of the master and frequent practice. Furthermore, projects tried out of experience and demonstrations are used to acquire skills.
Interest is essential for learning and training in apprenticeship. It is a motivating factor that enkindles one’s potentialities and is based on fundamental emotions and desire. It has always been described as one of the major factors that influence individuals in choice of career (Ochiagha, 1991). Interest promotes the desire of trainee to learn a skill. Do a job well and to take pride in the work. People differ fundamentally in their interest and the values they attach to things. These differences are of great importance in vocational guidance. They relate to occupational choice, effort, and satisfaction. One person likes to work with ideas, another with people, and still another with things. There is a lot of glib talk in guidance and education about helping youths to discover their interests. Interests are acquired or developed by participation in activities which promote success and personal satisfaction. If youths are to develop interests in occupations and an appreciation of the importance and worth-whileness of work, they must be provided early with an opportunity to participate in a meaningful way in work activities.
The consequences of these indigenous apprenticeship programmes seem to have caused poor enrolment into Technical schools and Technical Education Departments of the State Polytechnics. The question that readily comes to mind, is, ‘what future does this trend hold for technical education in Oyo State?’ This is where other forms of apprenticeship training are supposed to take place to meet the demands of the State in terms of middle manpower
requirements in technical fields, as well as to meet the growing needs of the introductory technology teachers in secondary schools of Oyo State.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Folayan (1990), states that “Fashion designer that was not created, designed and maintained by the people is not the peoples’ fashion designer”. If this stylist would not be regarded as the peoples’ fashion designer, the need to look inwards towards indigenous fashion designing of the people is necessary; the need arises therefore to identify the various fashions available in indigenous apprenticeship training system in Oyo State.
Since the creation of Oyo State, the State government has been engaging in an effort to increase practice in fashion designing/tailoring, developing youths’ interests in practical education and utilizing the available fashion designing practice for the benefit of the people of the State. These efforts appear not to have yielded the expected outcome. It can be observed that technical education programmes in Oyo State schools are usually developed but most often, they have not been well co-ordinated or its implementation seen not related to overall goal. The need to identify the various methods adopted in indigenous apprenticeship training becomes obvious since most people comparatively go in for apprenticeship training than for formal technical education. In Oyo State, most apprentices are not educated and are stereotyped, steeped in tradition and adhere to old age methods of training. They often grope into apprenticeship training with marginal knowledge of the different methods of training while seeking for work (Calaway, 1962). Besides, indigenous apprenticeship training among local people has been identified as being based on crude cultural practices, devoid of modern methods of educational practices. Ochiagha (1995) explains that, the method of acquiring skills and technical know-how in apprenticeship is denoted by casual and unsystematic learning of skills by the trainee as they watch and imitate experienced masters. The people have continued with traditional methods passed onto them thereby producing only fashion stylist that cannot face the pressure of modern technology.
The indigenous apprenticeship training was prevalent in Oyo state before the establishment of formal institutions; it is also traced to our indigenous form of education where, the trainees acquire skills under the tutelage of stylist. Those trained under this system constituted the major work force in our labour market today. The training of these apprentices in this system is mainly focused on skill training with marginal emphasis on cognitive capability.
Therefore, the trainees may lack ability to initiate and innovate. Oyo State government has made several efforts to promote and increase the production of technical teachers, yet the production level is relatively low. It becomes necessary to find out the characteristics of trainers and trainees, and the factors that influence decisions to enroll as an apprentice.
New fashion tools associated with improved training methods, have emerged. In modern times, with greater sophistication, more is expected from both the trainee and the trainer who are presently operating the crude system of technical training. Therefore, a gap can be identified in the development of Technical Education in Oyo State. The need, therefore, arises to appraise the status of the indigenous apprenticeship training and its consequences on technical education in Oyo State.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to examine the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans. Other specific objectives are:
1. To examine the methods of indigenous apprenticeship training that was carried out in Oyo State
2. To identify the factors that influence the decision to enroll as an apprentice
3. To identify the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What are the methods of indigenous apprenticeship training that was carried out in Oyo State?
2. What are the factors that influence the decision to enroll as an apprentice?
3. What is the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans?
1.6 Statement of the Hypothesis
HO1: There is no significant relationship between apprenticeship training and the performance of artisans
HA1: There is significant relationship between apprenticeship training and the performance of artisans
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be useful to the various governments, Federal, State and Local, the apprentices and trainers, vocational educators, Nigerian youths and their parents. In an effort to increase our technical know-how and to check the prevailing shortage of technical education experts, the various governments Federal, State, and Local have embarked on various technical education programmes such as the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme (NOAS). The findings of this study will provide useful information that can aid planning and successful execution of such a programme.
The study will provide the required information needed by trainees on the choice of apprenticeship areas based on their qualifications, interests and aptitudes. It will help apprentices confirm their career choices and encourage them during the training to be more active in learning, since the choice was made on their abilities and interest. The findings of the study will benefit formal technical educators in various ways. Apart from providing information on how to harness the indigenous apprenticeship as a way of training, it will furnish them with the methods, which they can successfully, adopt while teaching skills to students in formal technical education setting.
The findings of this study will provide information that will assist the trainers in planning apprenticeship programmes and in improving the methods of training. The findings of this study will be useful to Oyo State government in particular. Various trades of apprenticeship training in the State will be identified. This could aid developmental programmes especially now that the government is emphasizing poverty alleviation/eradication.
This study will provide parents and guardians information on apprenticeship programme and the necessary guidelines which will enable them chose apprenticeship trades, if they will not enroll in technical schools for formal technical education. Lastly, study and practice in technology could be strengthened through an integration of the old and new knowledge acquired through apprenticeship on the bases that they could be brought into a single entity.
1.8 Justification of the Study
The outcome of this study will be a little guide for the artisans on how to overcome the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans.
The research will also serve as a source base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field in future. The study therefore will extend the frontiers of the existing literature by emphasizing the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans in Nigeria.
1.9 Scope of the Study
This study on the effect of apprenticeship training on the performance of artisans will cover how the apprenticeship programme is organized and managed and its effect on the performance of artisans.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Apprentice: – A learner who has agreed to work for a skilled employer for a fixed period of time in return for being taught his master trade, art, craft or technical job.
Apprenticeship: – The period of learning a specific trade, craft, art or technical jib as an apprentice.
Apprenticeable occupation: Is a skilled trade(s) or craft(s) profession requiring special abilities which have been recognized by the United States Department of Labor, Office of Apprenticeship, Training, Employer, and Labor Services and by the Department of Workforce Development.
Apprenticeship committee: A entity approved to perform apprenticeship and training services for employers and employees.
Apprenticeship program: A plan for administering an apprenticeship agreement(s). The plan must contain all terms and conditions for the qualification, recruitment, selection, employment and training of apprentices, including such matters as the requirement for a written apprenticeship agreement.
Trainee: An individual registered as an apprentice in an apprenticeship program approved by DAS.
Training agreement: A written agreement between DAT and a program sponsor that contains the provisions of the apprenticeship program.
Training: – The systematic process of altering the behaviour of an employee too increase organizational goal.
Manpower: – Skill acquired through training can be semi- skilled and unskilled manpower.
Supervision: The necessary education, assistance, and control provided by one or more journey-level employees who is on the same job site at least 75 percent of each working day, unless otherwise approved by DAS.
Suspension: To render an apprentice or sponsor ineffective temporarily. During a suspension an apprentice agreement is void.
Employer: Any person or organization employing an apprentice whether or not such person or organization is a party to an apprenticeship agreement with the apprentice. “Employer” includes both union and open shop employers.
Individual agreement: A written agreement between an apprentice and/or trainee and either the apprentice’s employer or an apprenticeship committee acting as agent for the employer.
Work Process: A list of skills, which sets forth what the apprentice is to learn and perform. When the apprentice’s productivity and proficiency have reached the level of skill specified by the work process, and has also completed the number of hours required, the apprentice will have reached the Journeyperson skill level.